Diferenzas entre revisións de «Complexo de especies»

m
Arranxos varios, replaced: {{cite book → {{Cita libro (8), {{Cite journal → {{Cita publicación periódica (40)
m (Arranxos varios, replaced: {{cite book → {{Cita libro (8), {{Cite journal → {{Cita publicación periódica (40))
Un complexo de especies é tipicamente considerado como un grupo de especies próximas pero distintas.<ref name="Brown 1995" /> Obviamente, o concepto está estreitamente ligado á definición de [[especie]]. A bioloxía moderna entende unha especie como unha "liñaxe de [[metapoboación]]s que evolucionan separadamente", pero recoñece que os [[problema da especie|criterios que delimitan unha especie]] poden depender do grupo estudado.<ref name="De Queiroz 2007"/> Así, moitas especies definidas tradicionalmente, baseándose só na semellanza morfolóxica, acabaron considerándose como formadas por varias especies cando se aplicaron outros criterios, como a diferenciación xenética ou o [[illamento reprodutivo]].<ref name="Mayr 1970"/>
 
Un uso máis restrinxido aplica o termo a especies próximas entre as cales tivo lugar ou está tendo lugar unha [[Hibridación (bioloxía)|hibridación]], orixinando formas intermedias e límites entre especies difuminados.<ref name="Horandl 2009" /> A clasificación informal de superespecie, pode ser exemplificada pola bolboreta ''[[Pyrgus malvae]]'', unha superespecie que está subdividida en tres subespecies.<ref>{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica|last=JONG|first=R.|date=December 1987|title=Superspecies Pyrgus malvae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in the East Mediterranean, with notes on phylogenetic and biological relationships|url=|journal=Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie – via Naturalis Repository|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
 
Algúns autores aplican o termo tamén a unha especie con [[polimorfismo (bioloxía)|variabilidade intraespecífica]], que podería ser un signo de [[especiación]] en marcha ou incipiente. Exemplos son as [[especie en anel|especies en anel]]<ref name="Moritz 1992" /><ref name="Bowen 2001" /> ou as especies con [[subespecie]]s, nas que a miúdo non está claro se estas deberían ser consideradas especies separadas.<ref name="Muñoz 2013" />
Distinguir as especies próximas que forman parte dun complexo de especies non é doado e para elo cómpre normalmente facer un estudo detallado de pequenas diferenzas. As diferenzas morfolóxicas poden ser moi pequenas e só visibles usando métodos adaptados, como a [[microscopia]]. Porén, as especies distintas poden ás veces non ter diferenzas morfolóxicas.<ref name="Bickford2007" /> Neses casos, poden examinarse outras características, por exemplo a historia vital da especie, o [[etoloxía|comportamento]], a [[fisioloxía]] ou a [[carioloxía]]. Como exemplo, os [[vocaliación das aves|cantos territoriais]] son indicativos de cada especie entre as aves do xénero ''[[Certhia]]'', que teñen moi poucas diferenzas morfolóxicas.<ref name="Tietze 2006" /> As probas de apareamento son comúns para algúns grupos como os [[fungi|fungos]] para confirmar o [[illamento reprodutivo]] de dúas especies.<ref name="Dai 2003" />
 
A análise de [[secuencia de ADN|secuencias de ADN]] estase convertendo cada vez máis no método estándar para o recoñecemento de especies e pode en moitos casos ser o único método útil.<ref name="Bickford2007" /> Utilízanse diferentes métodos para analizar ditos datos xenéticos, por exemplo a [[filoxenética molecular]] ou o [[código de barras de ADN]]. Tales métodos contribuíron grandemente ao descubrimento de especies crípticas,<ref name="Bickford2007" /><ref>{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica|last=Marques|first=Isabel|last2=Montgomery|first2=Sean A.|last3=Barker|first3=Michael S.|last4=Macfarlane|first4=Terry D.|last5=Conran|first5=John G.|last6=Catalán|first6=Pilar|last7=Rieseberg|first7=Loren H.|last8=Rudall|first8=Paula J.|last9=Graham|first9=Sean W.|date=2016-04-01|title=Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales)|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13755/abstract|journal=New Phytologist|language=en|volume=210|issue=1|pages=310–323|doi=10.1111/nph.13755|issn=1469-8137}}</ref> incluíndo especies emblemáticas como o cogomelo ''[[Amanita muscaria]]''<ref name="Geml 2008" /> ou os [[Loxodonta|elefantes africanos]].<ref name="Roca 2001" />
{{Imaxe múltiple
| posición_táboa =center
A [[selección estabilizante]] foi proposta como forza que mantén a semellanza en complexos de especies, especialmente cando a adaptación a ambientes especiais, como un [[hóspede]] no caso dos simbiontes, ou ambientes extremos, restrinxen as posibles direccións da evolución. En tales casos, non se espera que haxa unha selección fortemente diverxente.<ref name="Bickford2007" /> Ademais, a [[reprodución asexual]], como a realizada por [[apomixe]] en plantas, pode separar liñaxes sen producir un gran grao de diferenciación morfolóxica.
 
[[Ficheiro:Cryptic speciation.svg|miniatura|esquerda|Posibles procesos que explican a semellanza de especies nun complexo de especies:</br />'''a''' – estase mofolóxica</br />'''b''' – [[especiación híbrida]].]]
 
Un complexo de especies é xeralmente un grupo que ten un [[antepasado común]] (un grupo [[monofilético]]), aínda que un exame máis detallado pode ás veces demostrar o contrario. Un exemplo é o das pintegas de fogo de pintas amarelas do xénero ''[[Salamandra]]'', que se clasificaban antes todas nunha soa especie, ''[[Salamandra salamandra|S. salamandra]]'', pero que non son monofiléticas: o parente máis próximo da píntega de fogo corsa ''[[Salamandra corsica|S. corsica]]'' é a píntega alpina enteiramente negra ''[[Salamandra atra|S. atra]]''.<ref name="Steinfartz 2000" /> En tales casos a semellanza entre especies xurdiu por [[evolución converxente]].
especies híbridas en botánica = notoespecies
 
<ref>{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author1=Ranz JM |author2=Maurin D |author3=Chan YS |author4=''et al.'' |title=Principles of genome evolution in the ''Drosophila melanogaster'' species group |journal=PLoS Biol. |volume=5 |issue=6 |pages=e152 |date=June 2007 |pmid=17550304 |pmc=1885836 |doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050152 }}</ref>
 
<ref>{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author=Kaston, B. J. |year=1970 |title=Comparative biology of American black widow spiders |journal=Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=33–82
}}</ref><ref>[http://www.andersontully.com/species/willow.htm Anderson Tully Worldwide]</ref>
 
<ref>{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Sözen M, Matur F, Çolak E, Özkurt Ş, Karataş A |title=Some karyological records and a new chromosomal form for Spalax (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey |journal=Folia Zool. |volume=55 |issue=3 |pages=247–256 |year=2006 |url=http://www.ivb.cz/folia/55/3/247-256.pdf |format=PDF}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Int Panis 1994">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Int Panis L, Kiknadze I, Bervoets L, Aimanova A | title=Karyological identification of some species of the genus ''Chironomus'' Meigen, 1803 from Belgium| journal=Bulletin et Annales de la Societé Royale Belge d'Entomologie (Belgium) |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232069918_Karyological_identifications_of_some_species_of_the_genus_Chironomus_Meigen_1803_from_Belgium?ev=srch_pub | year=1994 | pages=135–142 | volume=130}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Кикнадзе 2006">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Кикнадзе ИИ, Михайлова П, Истомина АГ, Голыгина ВВ, Инт Панис Л, Крастанов Б | title=Хромосомный полиморфизм и дивергенция популяций у ''Chironomus nuditarsis'' Str. (Diptera, Chironomidae) [The chromosomal polymorphism and divergence of populations in ''Chironomus nuditarsis'' Str. (Diptera, Chironomidae] |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6710283_The_chromosomal_polymorphism_and_divergence_of_populations_in_Chironomus_nuditarsis_Str._(Diptera_Chironomidae)?ev=prf_pub | journal=Tsitologia | year=2006 | pages=595–609 | volume=48 | language=Russian}}</ref>
 
<ref>{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author=Nicolas Puillandre, Christopher P. Meyer, Philippe Bouchet & Baldomero M. Olivera |year=2011 |title=Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water ''Conus orbignyi'' complex (Mollusca: Conoidea) |journal=[[Zoologica Scripta]] |volume=40 |issue=4 |pages=350–363 |pmid=21712968 |doi=10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00478.x |pmc=3123138}}</ref>
 
<ref name="ncbi">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |pages=2963–73 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01946.x |title=Genetic mosaic in a marine species flock |year=2003 |last1=McCartney |first1=Michael A. |last2=Acevedo |first2=Jenny |last3=Heredia |first3=Christine |last4=Rico |first4=Ciro |last5=Quenoville |first5=Brice |last6=Bermingham |first6=Eldredge |last7=McMillan |first7=W. Owen |journal=Molecular Ecology |volume=12 |issue=11 |pmid=14629377}}</ref>
 
<ref name="naturecom">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |pages=419–20 |doi=10.1038/sj.hdy.6800722 |title=Evolutionary Biology: Cichlid species flocks of the past and present |year=2005 |last1=Meyer |first1=A |journal=Heredity |volume=95 |issue=6 |pmid=16030527}}</ref>
</references>
 
<ref name="Tiemann-Boege 2000">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica|pmid=10991790|title=Molecular systematics of the ''Peromyscus boylii'' species group (Rodentia: muridae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences|vauthors=Tiemann-Boege I, Kilpatrick CW, Schmidly DJ, Bradley RD |journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution |year=2000 |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=366–378 |doi=10.1006/mpev.2000.0806 |pmid=10991790}}</ref>
 
-->
 
<ref name="CaminerRon 2014">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |last1=Ron |first1=Santiago |last2=Caminer |first2=Marcel |title=Systematics of treefrogs of the ''Hypsiboas calcaratus'' and ''Hypsiboas fasciatus'' species complex (Anura, Hylidae) with the description of four new species |journal=ZooKeys |volume=370 |year=2014 |pages=1–68| issn=1313-2970 |doi=10.3897/zookeys.370.6291 |pmid=24478591 |pmc=3904076}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Brown 1995">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Brown JK, Frohlich DR, Rosell RC |title=The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of ''Bemisia tabaci'' or a species complex? |year=1995 |volume=40 | pages=511–534 |journal=Annual Review of Entomology |doi=10.1146/annurev.en.40.010195.002455 |issue=1}}</ref>
<ref name="Amadon 1966">{{cite journal |author=Amadon D. |year=1966 |title=The superspecies concept |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=245–249 |url=http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/3/245.abstract |doi=10.2307/sysbio/15.3.245}}</ref>
 
<ref name="De Queiroz 2007">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |last1=De Queiroz |first1=Kevin |title=Species Concepts and Species Delimitation |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=56 |issue=6 |year=2007 |pages=879–886 |issn=1063-5157 |doi=10.1080/10635150701701083 |pmid=18027281}}</ref>
<ref name="Besansky 1994">{{cite journal |vauthors=Besansky NJ, Powell JR, Caccone A, Hamm DM, Scott JA, Collins FH |title=Molecular phylogeny of the ''Anopheles gambiae'' complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |volume=91 |issue=15 |pages=6885–8 |date=1994 |pmid=8041714 |pmc=44302 |doi=10.1073/pnas.91.15.6885}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Bickford2007Bowen 2001">{{citeCita publicación periódica journal|vauthors=BickfordBowen DBW, LohmanBass DJAL, SodhiRocha NSLA, NgGrant PKWS, MeierRoberston R,DR Winker|title=Phylogeography K,of Ingramthe KK,trumpetfishes Das(''Aulostomus''): I |year=2007 |title=CrypticRing species as a windowcomplex on diversitya andglobal conservationscale |journalyear=Trends in Ecology & Evolution2001 |volume=2255 |issue=35 |pages=148–1551029–1039 |urljournal=http://webh01.ua.ac.be/funmorph/raoul/fylsyst/Bickford2007.pdf |format=PDFEvolution |doi=10.10161111/j.tree0014-3820.20062001.11tb00619.004 }}{{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes x}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Bowen 2001Bickford2007">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica|vauthors=BowenBickford BWD, BassLohman ALDJ, RochaSodhi LANS, GrantNg WSPK, RoberstonMeier DRR, |title=PhylogeographyWinker ofK, theIngram trumpetfishesKK, (''Aulostomus''):Das RingI |year=2007 |title=Cryptic species complexas a window on adiversity globaland scaleconservation |yearjournal=2001Trends in Ecology & Evolution |volume=5522 |issue=53 |pages=1029–1039148–155 |journalurl=Evolutionhttp://webh01.ua.ac.be/funmorph/raoul/fylsyst/Bickford2007.pdf |format=PDF |doi=10.11111016/j.0014-3820tree.20012006.tb0061911.x004 }}{{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Amadon 1966">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author=Amadon D. |year=1966 |title=The superspecies concept |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=245–249 |url=http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/3/245.abstract |doi=10.2307/sysbio/15.3.245}}</ref>
<ref name="Brown 1995">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Brown JK, Frohlich DR, Rosell RC |title=The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: biotypes of ''Bemisia tabaci'' or a species complex? |year=1995 |volume=40 | pages=511–534 |journal=Annual Review of Entomology |doi=10.1146/annurev.en.40.010195.002455 |issue=1}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Dai 2003">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=((Dai Y-C)), Vainio EJ, Hantula J, Niemelä, Korhonen K |year=2003 |title=Investigations on ''Heterobasidion annosum s.lat.'' in central and eastern Asia with the aid of mating tests and DNA fingerprinting |journal=Forest Pathology |volume=33 |issue=5 |pages=269–286 |doi=10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00328.x}}</ref>
<ref name="Brown 2007">{{Cite journal | doi=10.1186/1741-7007-5-57 | issn = 1741-7007 | volume = 5 | pages = 57 |vauthors=Brown D, Brenneman R, Koepfli KP, Pollinger J, Mila B, Georgiadis N, Louis E, Grether G, Jacobs D, Wayne R | title = Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe | journal = BMC Biology | year = 2007 | url = http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/5/57 | pmid = 18154651 | pmc = 2254591 | issue=1}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Elmer 2007">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica | doi=10.1186/1471-2148-7-247 | issn = 1471-2148 | volume = 7 | pages = 247 |vauthors=Elmer K, Davila J, Lougheed S | title = Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian leaflitter frog, ''Eleutherodactylus ockendeni'' | journal = BMC Evolutionary Biology | year = 2007 | url = http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/7/247 | pmid = 18154647 | pmc = 2254618 | issue=1}}</ref>
<ref name="Dai 2003">{{cite journal |vauthors=((Dai Y-C)), Vainio EJ, Hantula J, Niemelä, Korhonen K |year=2003 |title=Investigations on ''Heterobasidion annosum s.lat.'' in central and eastern Asia with the aid of mating tests and DNA fingerprinting |journal=Forest Pathology |volume=33 |issue=5 |pages=269–286 |doi=10.1046/j.1439-0329.2003.00328.x}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Engelke 2006">{{da}} Engelke, S. (2006?): Til Snegleforeningen (Nota da sociedade das lesmas dinamarquesa). [http://www.dansksnegleforening.dk/Af%20Sabine%20Engelke.htm]</ref>
<ref name="De Queiroz 2007">{{cite journal |last1=De Queiroz |first1=Kevin |title=Species Concepts and Species Delimitation |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=56 |issue=6 |year=2007 |pages=879–886 |issn=1063-5157 |doi=10.1080/10635150701701083 |pmid=18027281}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Besansky 1994">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Besansky NJ, Powell JR, Caccone A, Hamm DM, Scott JA, Collins FH |title=Molecular phylogeny of the ''Anopheles gambiae'' complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |volume=91 |issue=15 |pages=6885–8 |date=1994 |pmid=8041714 |pmc=44302 |doi=10.1073/pnas.91.15.6885}}</ref>
<ref name="Elmer 2007">{{Cite journal | doi=10.1186/1471-2148-7-247 | issn = 1471-2148 | volume = 7 | pages = 247 |vauthors=Elmer K, Davila J, Lougheed S | title = Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian leaflitter frog, ''Eleutherodactylus ockendeni'' | journal = BMC Evolutionary Biology | year = 2007 | url = http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/7/247 | pmid = 18154647 | pmc = 2254618 | issue=1}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Brown 2007">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica | doi=10.1186/1741-7007-5-57 | issn = 1741-7007 | volume = 5 | pages = 57 |vauthors=Brown D, Brenneman R, Koepfli KP, Pollinger J, Mila B, Georgiadis N, Louis E, Grether G, Jacobs D, Wayne R | title = Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe | journal = BMC Biology | year = 2007 | url = http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/5/57 | pmid = 18154651 | pmc = 2254591 | issue=1}}</ref>
<ref name="Engelke 2006">{{da}} Engelke, S. (2006?): Til Snegleforeningen (Nota da sociedade das lesmas dinamarquesa). [http://www.dansksnegleforening.dk/Af%20Sabine%20Engelke.htm]</ref>
 
<!--
<ref name="Fegan 2005">{{citeCita booklibro |chapter=How complex is the "''Ralstonia solanacearum'' species complex"? |title=Bacterial wilt disease and the ''Ralstonia solanacearum'' species complex |vauthors=Fegan M, Prior P |veditors=Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC |publisher=American Phytopathological Society (APS Press) |location=St. Paul, USA |year=2005 |pages=449–461 |url=http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:71427/ArielDocRQF2.pdf |format=PDF}}</ref>
-->
 
<ref name="Geml 2008">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica|vauthors=Geml J, Tulloss RE, Laursen GA, Sasanova NA, Taylor DL |year=2008 |title=Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in ''Amanita muscaria'', a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete |journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=694–701 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5309009_Evidence_for_strong_inter-_and_intracontinental_phylogeographic_structure_in_Amanita_muscaria_a_wind-dispersed_ectomycorrhizal_basidiomycete/file/d912f50a2aa1350388.pdf |doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.029 |pmid=18547823}}</ref>
<ref name="Fontdevila 1988">{{cite journal |vauthors=Fontdevila A, Pla C, Hasson E, Wasserman M, Sanchez A, Naveira H, Ruiz A |title=''Drosophila koepferae'': a new member of the ''Drosophila serido'' (Diptera: Drosophilidae) superspecies taxon |journal=Annals of the Entomological Society of America |volume=81 |issue=3 |pages=380–385 |date=1988 |doi=10.1093/aesa/81.3.380}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Moran 1993">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Moran P, Kornfield I |title=Retention of an Ancestral Polymorphism in the Mbuna Species Flock (Teleostei: Cichlidae) of Lake Malawi |journal=Molecular Biology and Evolution |volume=10 |issue=5 |pages=1015–1029 |date=1993 |url=http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/assets/2/6764_08032011_101306_Moran.and.Kornfield.1993-rev.pdf}}</ref>
<ref name="Geml 2008">{{cite journal|vauthors=Geml J, Tulloss RE, Laursen GA, Sasanova NA, Taylor DL |year=2008 |title=Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in ''Amanita muscaria'', a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete |journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=694–701 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5309009_Evidence_for_strong_inter-_and_intracontinental_phylogeographic_structure_in_Amanita_muscaria_a_wind-dispersed_ectomycorrhizal_basidiomycete/file/d912f50a2aa1350388.pdf |doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.029 |pmid=18547823}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Mayr 1970">{{citeCita booklibro |author=Mayr E. |year=1970 |title=Populations, Species, and Evolution |publisher=The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press |location=Cambridge, MA |chapter=Morphological species characters and sibling species |pages=21–36 |isbn=0-674-69013-3 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=STEXkujeBnsC&pg=PA21}}</ref>
<ref name="Gómez 2007">{{Cite journal| issn = 0962-8452| volume = 274| issue = 1607| pages = 199–207|vauthors=Gómez A, Wright PJ, Lunt DH, Cancino JM, Carvalho GR, Hughes RN | title = Mating trials validate the use of DNA barcoding to reveal cryptic speciation of a marine bryozoan taxon | journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society B | year = 2007 | doi = 10.1098/rspb.2006.3718| pmid = 17035167
| pmc = 1685843}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Roca 2001">{{Cita publicación periódica |vauthors=Roca AL, Georgiadis N, Pecon-Slattery J, O'Brien SJ |title=Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa |year=2001 |journal=Science |volume=293 |issue=5534 |pages=1473–1477 |doi=10.1126/science.1059936 |pmid=11520983}}</ref>
<ref name="Heywood 1962">{{cite book |author=Heywood VH. |year=1962 |title=Symposium on Biosystematics, organized by the International Organization of Biosystematists, Montreal, October 1962 |chapter=The "species aggregate" in theory and practice |editor1=VH Heywood |editor2=Löve Á. |pages=26–36}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Horandl 2009">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author1=Horandl, E. |author2=Greilhuber, J. |author3=Klimova, K. |author4=Paun, O. |author5=Temsch, E. |author6=Emadzade, K. |author7=Hodalova, I. |year=2009 |title=Reticulate evolution and taxonomic concepts in the ''Ranunculus auricomus'' complex (Ranunculaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, karyological and molecular data |journal=Taxon |volume=58 |issue=4 |pages=1194–1215 |pmc=2855680 |pmid=20401184}}</ref>
<ref name="ICNB 1992">{{cite book |veditors=Lapage SP, Sneath PH, Lessel EF, Skerman VB, Seeliger HP, Clark WA |year=1992 |title=International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision |chapter=Chapter 3. Rules of nomenclature with recommendations. Section 2. Ranks of taxa |publisher=ASM Press |location=Washington (DC) |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8817/}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Moritz 1992">{{Cita publicación periódica |vauthors=Moritz C, Schneider CJ, Wake DB |title=Evolutionary relationships within the ''Ensatina eschscholtzii'' complex confirm the ring species interpretation |journal=Systematic Biology |volume=41 |issue=3 |pages=273–291 |date=1992 |doi=10.1093/sysbio/41.3.273}}</ref>
<ref name="ICZN 1999">{{cite book | veditors = Ride WD, Cogger HG, Dupuis C, Kraus O, Minelli A, Thompson FC, Tubbs PK |year=1999 |title=International Code of Zoological Nomenclature |chapter=Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names |publisher=The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature |location=London |url=http://iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp |isbn=0853010064}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Muñoz 2013">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author1=Muñoz MM |author2=Crawford NG |author3=McGreevy Jr. TJ |author4=Messana NJ |author5=Tarvin RD |author6=Revell LJ |author7=Zandvliet RM |author8=Hopwood JM |author9=Mock E |author10=Schneider AL |author11=Schneider CJ. |title=Divergence in coloration and ecological speciation in the ''Anolis marmoratus'' species complex |journal=Molecular Ecology |volume=22 |issue=10 |pages=2668–2682 |date=2013 |doi=10.1111/mec.12295 |pmid=23611648 |url=http://faculty.umb.edu/liam.revell/pdfs/Munoz_etal_2013.MolEcol.pdf |format=PDF}}</ref>
<ref name="Hodges 1994">{{cite journal |vauthors=Hodges SA, Arnold ML |year=1994 |title=Columbines: a geographically widespread species flock |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |volume=91 |issue=11 |pages=5129–5132 |url=http://www.pnas.org/content/91/11/5129.full.pdf |format=PDF |pmid=8197196 |pmc=43945 |doi=10.1073/pnas.91.11.5129}}</ref>
 
<ref name="ICZN 1999">{{citeCita booklibro | veditors = Ride WD, Cogger HG, Dupuis C, Kraus O, Minelli A, Thompson FC, Tubbs PK |year=1999 |title=International Code of Zoological Nomenclature |chapter=Chapter 9: Genus-group nominal taxa and their names |publisher=The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature |location=London |url=http://iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp |isbn=0853010064}}</ref>
<ref name="Horandl 2009">{{cite journal |author1=Horandl, E. |author2=Greilhuber, J. |author3=Klimova, K. |author4=Paun, O. |author5=Temsch, E. |author6=Emadzade, K. |author7=Hodalova, I. |year=2009 |title=Reticulate evolution and taxonomic concepts in the ''Ranunculus auricomus'' complex (Ranunculaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, karyological and molecular data |journal=Taxon |volume=58 |issue=4 |pages=1194–1215 |pmc=2855680 |pmid=20401184}}</ref>
 
<ref name="ICNB 1992">{{citeCita booklibro |veditors=Lapage SP, Sneath PH, Lessel EF, Skerman VB, Seeliger HP, Clark WA |year=1992 |title=International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision |chapter=Chapter 3. Rules of nomenclature with recommendations. Section 2. Ranks of taxa |publisher=ASM Press |location=Washington (DC) |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8817/}}</ref>
<ref name="iowa">[http://www.agron.iastate.edu/~weeds/Ag317-99/id/define.html Iowa State University Department of Agronomy]</ref>
 
<ref name="MelbourneCode">{{citeCita booklibro | year = 2012 | editor-last = McNeill | editor-first = J | displayeditors = etal | title = International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 |edition=electronic |publication-place=Bratislava |publisher=International Association for Plant Taxonomy |url=http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php |accessdate=2012-12-20 |lastauthoramp=yes}}.</ref>
<ref name="Kankare 2005">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Kankare M, Van Nouhuys S, Hanski I |year=2005 | title=Genetic divergence among host-specific cryptic species in ''Cotesia melitaearum'' aggregate (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of checkerspot butterflies | journal=Annals of the Entomological Society of America |volume=98| issue=3 |pages=382–394 |doi=10.1603/0013-8746(2005)098[0382:GDAHCS]2.0.CO;2}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Morris 1992">{{citeCita booklibro |chapter=Physiologic race |page=1643 |title=Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology |editor-first=Christopher |editor-last=Morris |date=1992 |location=San Diego / London |publisher=Academic Press |isbn=0-12-200400-0 }}</ref>
<ref name="Knowlton 1993">{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1146/annurev.es.24.110193.001201 | issn = 0066-4162| volume = 24| issue = 1| pages = 189–216| author = Knowlton N | title = Sibling species in the sea| journal = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics | year = 1993 | url = http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.es.24.110193.001201}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Mayr 1942">{{citeCita booklibro|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mAIjnLp6r_MC&pg=PR9&dq=ernst+mayr+1942#v=onepage&q=ernst%20mayr%201942&f=false|title=Systematics and the Origin of Species, from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist|isbn=9780674862500|author1=Mayr|first1=Ernst|year=1942}}</ref>
<ref name="Knowlton 2000">{{Cite journal| issn = 0018-8158| volume = 420| issue = 1| pages = 73–90| author = Knowlton N. | title = Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea | journal = Hydrobiologia | year = February 2000 | url = http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=U2j2HLH4FAKPAj6DDmd&page=8&doc=72| doi = 10.1023/A:1003933603879}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Steyskal 1972">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |author=Steyskal GC. |year=1972 |title=The meaning of the term 'sibling species' |journal=Systematic Zoology |volume=21 |issue=4 |page=446 |url=http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/125530-0.pdf |format=PDF |doi=10.1093/sysbio/21.4.446 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150207130016/http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/125530-0.pdf |archivedate=2015-02-07 |df= }}</ref>
<ref name="Mallet 2007">{{cite journal |vauthors=Mallet J, Beltrán M, Neukirchen W, Linares M |title=Natural hybridization in heliconiine butterflies: the species boundary as a continuum |year=2007 |journal=BMC Evolutionary Biology |volume=7 |pages=28 |doi=10.1186/1471-2148-7-28 |pmid=17319954 |pmc=1821009 |issue=1}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Hodges 1994">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Hodges SA, Arnold ML |year=1994 |title=Columbines: a geographically widespread species flock |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |volume=91 |issue=11 |pages=5129–5132 |url=http://www.pnas.org/content/91/11/5129.full.pdf |format=PDF |pmid=8197196 |pmc=43945 |doi=10.1073/pnas.91.11.5129}}</ref>
<ref name="Mayr 1942">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mAIjnLp6r_MC&pg=PR9&dq=ernst+mayr+1942#v=onepage&q=ernst%20mayr%201942&f=false|title=Systematics and the Origin of Species, from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist|isbn=9780674862500|author1=Mayr|first1=Ernst|year=1942}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Fontdevila 1988">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Fontdevila A, Pla C, Hasson E, Wasserman M, Sanchez A, Naveira H, Ruiz A |title=''Drosophila koepferae'': a new member of the ''Drosophila serido'' (Diptera: Drosophilidae) superspecies taxon |journal=Annals of the Entomological Society of America |volume=81 |issue=3 |pages=380–385 |date=1988 |doi=10.1093/aesa/81.3.380}}</ref>
<ref name="Mayr 1970">{{cite book |author=Mayr E. |year=1970 |title=Populations, Species, and Evolution |publisher=The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press |location=Cambridge, MA |chapter=Morphological species characters and sibling species |pages=21–36 |isbn=0-674-69013-3 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=STEXkujeBnsC&pg=PA21}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Wallis 1989">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Wallis GP, Arntzen JW |year=1989 |title=Mitochondrial-DNA variation in the crested newt superspecies: Limited cytoplasmic gene flow among species |journal=Evolution |volume=43 |issue=1 |pages=88–104 |jstor=2409166 |doi=10.2307/2409166}}</ref>
<ref name="MelbourneCode">{{cite book | year = 2012 | editor-last = McNeill | editor-first = J | displayeditors = etal | title = International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 |edition=electronic |publication-place=Bratislava |publisher=International Association for Plant Taxonomy |url=http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php |accessdate=2012-12-20 |lastauthoramp=yes}}.</ref>
 
<ref name="Heywood 1962">{{citeCita booklibro |author=Heywood VH. |year=1962 |title=Symposium on Biosystematics, organized by the International Organization of Biosystematists, Montreal, October 1962 |chapter=The "species aggregate" in theory and practice |editor1=VH Heywood |editor2=Löve Á. |pages=26–36}}</ref>
<ref name="Moran 1993">{{cite journal |vauthors=Moran P, Kornfield I |title=Retention of an Ancestral Polymorphism in the Mbuna Species Flock (Teleostei: Cichlidae) of Lake Malawi |journal=Molecular Biology and Evolution |volume=10 |issue=5 |pages=1015–1029 |date=1993 |url=http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/assets/2/6764_08032011_101306_Moran.and.Kornfield.1993-rev.pdf}}</ref>
 
<ref name="MoritzKankare 19922005">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=MoritzKankare CM, SchneiderVan CJNouhuys S, WakeHanski DBI |year=2005 | title=EvolutionaryGenetic relationshipsdivergence withinamong thehost-specific cryptic species in ''EnsatinaCotesia eschscholtziimelitaearum'' complexaggregate confirm(Hymenoptera: theBraconidae), ringparasitoids speciesof interpretationcheckerspot butterflies | journal=SystematicAnnals of the Entomological Society of BiologyAmerica |volume=41 98| issue=3 |pages=273–291 |date=1992382–394 |doi=10.10931603/sysbio/410013-8746(2005)098[0382:GDAHCS]2.30.273CO;2}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Wallis 2001">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Wallis GP, Judge KF, Bland J, Waters JM, Berra TM |year=2001 |title=Genetic diversity in New Zealand ''Galaxias vulgaris sensu lato'' (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae): a test of a biogeographic hypothesis |journal=Journal of Biogeography |volume=28 |issue=1 |pages=59–67 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-2699.2001.00535.x}}</ref>
<ref name="Morris 1992">{{cite book |chapter=Physiologic race |page=1643 |title=Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology |editor-first=Christopher |editor-last=Morris |date=1992 |location=San Diego / London |publisher=Academic Press |isbn=0-12-200400-0 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="VandePutte2010">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Van de Putte K, Nuytinck J, Stubbe D, Le HT, Verbeken A |title=''Lactarius volemus'' sensu lato (Russulales) from northern Thailand: Morphological and phylogenetic species concepts explored |journal=Fungal Diversity |year=2010 |volume=45 |issue=1 |pages=99–130 |doi=10.1007/s13225-010-0070-0}}</ref>
<ref name="Muñoz 2013">{{cite journal |author1=Muñoz MM |author2=Crawford NG |author3=McGreevy Jr. TJ |author4=Messana NJ |author5=Tarvin RD |author6=Revell LJ |author7=Zandvliet RM |author8=Hopwood JM |author9=Mock E |author10=Schneider AL |author11=Schneider CJ. |title=Divergence in coloration and ecological speciation in the ''Anolis marmoratus'' species complex |journal=Molecular Ecology |volume=22 |issue=10 |pages=2668–2682 |date=2013 |doi=10.1111/mec.12295 |pmid=23611648 |url=http://faculty.umb.edu/liam.revell/pdfs/Munoz_etal_2013.MolEcol.pdf |format=PDF}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Gómez 2007">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica| issn = 0962-8452| volume = 274| issue = 1607| pages = 199–207|vauthors=Gómez A, Wright PJ, Lunt DH, Cancino JM, Carvalho GR, Hughes RN | title = Mating trials validate the use of DNA barcoding to reveal cryptic speciation of a marine bryozoan taxon | journal = Proceedings of the Royal Society B | year = 2007 | doi = 10.1098/rspb.2006.3718| pmid = 17035167
<ref name="oxford">[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8-speciesgroup.html Michael Allaby. "species group." ''A Dictionary of Zoology'' (Oxford University Press 1999)]</ref>
| pmc = 1685843}}</ref>
 
<ref name="RocaTietze 20012006">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=RocaTietze ALDT, Georgiadis N, Pecon-SlatteryMartens J, O'BrienSun SJYH |year=2006 |title=GeneticMolecular evidencephylogeny forof twotreecreepers species(''Certhia'') ofdetects elephanthidden in Africa |year=2001diversity |journal=ScienceIbis |volume=293148 |issue=55343 |pages=1473–1477477–488 |doi=10.11261111/sciencej.1059936 |pmid=115209831474-919X.2006.00547.x}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Steinfartz 2000">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Steinfartz S, Veith M, Tautz D |title=Mitochondrial sequence analysis of ''Salamandra'' taxa suggests old splits of major lineages and postglacial recolonizations of Central Europe from distinct source populations of ''Salamandra salamandra'' |year=2000 |journal=Molecular Ecology |volume=9 |issue=4 |pages=397–410 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00870.x|pmid=10736043 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Mallet 2007">{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica |vauthors=Mallet J, Beltrán M, Neukirchen W, Linares M |title=Natural hybridization in heliconiine butterflies: the species boundary as a continuum |year=2007 |journal=BMC Evolutionary Biology |volume=7 |pages=28 |doi=10.1186/1471-2148-7-28 |pmid=17319954 |pmc=1821009 |issue=1}}</ref>
<ref name="Steyskal 1972">{{cite journal |author=Steyskal GC. |year=1972 |title=The meaning of the term 'sibling species' |journal=Systematic Zoology |volume=21 |issue=4 |page=446 |url=http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/125530-0.pdf |format=PDF |doi=10.1093/sysbio/21.4.446 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150207130016/http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/125530-0.pdf |archivedate=2015-02-07 |df= }}</ref>
 
<ref name="iowa">[http://www.agron.iastate.edu/~weeds/Ag317-99/id/define.html Iowa State University Department of Agronomy]</ref>
<ref name="Tietze 2006">{{cite journal |vauthors=Tietze DT, Martens J, Sun YH |year=2006 |title=Molecular phylogeny of treecreepers (''Certhia'') detects hidden diversity |journal=Ibis |volume=148 |issue=3 |pages=477–488 |doi=10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00547.x}}</ref>
 
<ref name="oxford">[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8-speciesgroup.html Michael Allaby. "species group." ''A Dictionary of Zoology'' (Oxford University Press 1999)]</ref>
<ref name="VandePutte2010">{{cite journal |vauthors=Van de Putte K, Nuytinck J, Stubbe D, Le HT, Verbeken A |title=''Lactarius volemus'' sensu lato (Russulales) from northern Thailand: Morphological and phylogenetic species concepts explored |journal=Fungal Diversity |year=2010 |volume=45 |issue=1 |pages=99–130 |doi=10.1007/s13225-010-0070-0}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Knowlton 1993">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica
<ref name="Wallis 1989">{{cite journal |vauthors=Wallis GP, Arntzen JW |year=1989 |title=Mitochondrial-DNA variation in the crested newt superspecies: Limited cytoplasmic gene flow among species |journal=Evolution |volume=43 |issue=1 |pages=88–104 |jstor=2409166 |doi=10.2307/2409166}}</ref>
| doi = 10.1146/annurev.es.24.110193.001201 | issn = 0066-4162| volume = 24| issue = 1| pages = 189–216| author = Knowlton N | title = Sibling species in the sea| journal = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics | year = 1993 | url = http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.es.24.110193.001201}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Knowlton 2000">{{CiteCita journalpublicación periódica| issn = 0018-8158| volume = 420| issue = 1| pages = 73–90| author = Knowlton N. | title = Molecular genetic analyses of species boundaries in the sea | journal = Hydrobiologia | year = February 2000 | url = http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=U2j2HLH4FAKPAj6DDmd&page=8&doc=72| doi = 10.1023/A:1003933603879}}</ref>
<ref name="Wallis 2001">{{cite journal |vauthors=Wallis GP, Judge KF, Bland J, Waters JM, Berra TM |year=2001 |title=Genetic diversity in New Zealand ''Galaxias vulgaris sensu lato'' (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae): a test of a biogeographic hypothesis |journal=Journal of Biogeography |volume=28 |issue=1 |pages=59–67 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-2699.2001.00535.x}}</ref>
 
}}
* [[Alianza (bioloxía)]]
* [[Subespecie]]
 
 
[[Categoría:Grupos de especies]]
393.002

edicións