Diferenzas entre revisións de «ADN recombinante»

== Usos ==
 
O ADN recombinantge utilízase moito en [[biotecnoloxía]], [[medicin]] e [[investigación]]. Hoxe, ss proteínas rfecombinantes e outros productos orixinados por medio da tecnokoxía do ADN encóntranse practicamete en todas as farmacias, consultas médicas ou veterinarias, lboratorios de probas médicas e de investigación biolóxica. Ademais, os organismos que foron manipulados usando a tecnoloxía do ADN recombinante ou os produtos derivados de ditos organismos atoparon un lugar nas granxas, [[alimento modificado xeneticamente|supermercados]], botiquínscaixas caseirosde urxencia caseiras e mesmo en tendas de animais de compañía, como os peixes de acuario [[GloFish]] e outros animais modificados xeneticamente.
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The most common application of recombinant DNA is in basic research, in which the technology is important to most current work in the biological and biomedical sciences.<ref name="isbn1-4051-1121-6" /> Recombinant DNA is used to identify, map and sequence genes, and to determine their function. rDNA probes are employed in analyzing gene expression within individual cells, and throughout the tissues of whole organisms. Recombinant proteins are widely used as reagents in laboratory experiments and to generate antibody probes for examining protein synthesis within cells and organisms.<ref name="isbn0-8153-4111-3" />
 
A aplicación máis común do ADN recombinante é na investigación básica, na cal a tecnoloxía é importante para os traballos máis actuais en ciencias biolóxicas e médicas.<ref name="isbn1-4051-1121-6" /> O ADN recombinante util´kzase para identificar, mapar e secuenciar xenes e para determinar as súas funcións. As sondas de ADN recombinante empréganse para analizar a expresión xénica en células concretas, e por todos os tecidos do organismo completo. As proteínas recombinnates son amplamente utilizadas como reactivos en experimentos de laboratorio e para xerar sondas de anticorpos para examinar a síntese de proteínas dentro das células e organismos.<ref name="isbn0-8153-4111-3" />
Many additional practical applications of recombinant DNA are found in industry, food production, human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering.<ref name="isbn0-8153-4111-3" /> Some specific examples are identified below.
 
Outras moitas aplicacións prácticas do ADN recombinante poden encontrarse na industria, produción de alimentos, medicina humana e veterinaria, agricultura e bioenxeñaría.<ref name="isbn0-8153-4111-3" /> Algúns exemplos indícanse máis abaixo.
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;Recombinant [[chymosin]] {{not a typo|:}} Found in [[rennet]], chymosin is an enzyme required to manufacture cheese. It was the first genetically engineered food additive used commercially. Traditionally, processors obtained chymosin from rennet, a preparation derived from the fourth stomach of milk-fed calves. Scientists engineered a non-pathogenic strain (K-12) of ''E. coli'' bacteria for large-scale laboratory production of the enzyme. This microbiologically produced recombinant enzyme, identical structurally to the calf derived enzyme, costs less and is produced in abundant quantities. Today about 60% of U.S. hard cheese is made with genetically engineered chymosin. In 1990, FDA granted chymosin "[[generally recognized as safe]]" (GRAS) status based on data showing that the enzyme was safe.<ref>Donna U. Vogt and Mickey Parish. (1999) [https://fpc.state.gov/6176.htm Food Biotechnology in the United States: Science, Regulation, and Issues]</ref>
;Recombinant human [[insulin]] : Almost completely replaced insulin obtained from animal sources (e.g. pigs and cattle) for the treatment of insulin-dependent [[diabetes]]. A variety of different recombinant insulin preparations are in widespread use.<ref name="pmid|12004916">{{Cite journal
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