Diferenzas entre revisións de «ADN recombinante»

== Historia ==
 
TheA idea ofdun recombinantADN DNArecombinante wasfoi firstproposta proposedprimeiramenre bypor Peter Lobban, aun graduateestudante studentgraduado ofdo Prof. [[A. Dale Kaiser|Dale Kaiser]] inno theDepartamento Biochemistryde DepartmentBioquímica atda StanfordEscola Universityde MedicalMedicina Schoolda Un iversidade de Stanford.<ref>Lear, J. (1978). ''Recombinant DNA: The Untold Story''. New York: Crown Publishers. p. 43.</ref> TheA firstprimeira publicationspublicación describingque thedescribía successfula productionprodución andcon intracellularéxito replicatione ofa recombinantreplicac DNAión appearedintracelular inde ADN recombinante apareceu en 1972 ande 1973, fromna [[StanfordUniversidade de University|Stanford]] ande na [[UniversityUniversidade ofde California, San Francisco|UCSF]].<ref name="pmid|4342968">{{Cite journal
| last1 = Jackson | first1 = D.
| last2 = Symons | first2 = R.
| doi=10.1073/pnas.70.11.3240
| bibcode = 1973PNAS...70.3240C
}}</ref> InEn 1980 [[Paul Berg]], aun professorprofesor indo theDepartamento Biochemistryde DepartmentBioquímica aten Stanford ande anautor authordun ondos oneprimeiros of the first papersartigos <ref name="pmid|4342968" /> wasfoi awardedgalardoado theco [[Premio Nobel Prizede inQuímica]] Chemistrypolo forseu histraballo worksobre on[[ácido nucleicnucleico|ácidos acidsnucleicos]] "withcon particularespecial regardconsideración toao recombinantADN DNArecombinante". [[Werner Arber]], [[Hamilton O. Smith|Hamilton Smith]], ande [[Daniel Nathans]] sharedcompartiron theen 1978 o [[Nobel Prize inPremio PhysiologyNoble orde MedicineMedicina]] forpolo thedescubrimento discovery ofdas [[Restrictionendonuclease Endonucleases|restrictionde restrición|endonucleases de restrición]], que whichmelloraron enhancedas thetécnicas techniquesdatecnoloxía ofdo rDNAADN technologyrecombinante.
 
[[A Universidade de Stanford University]]solicitou appliedunha forpatente anos USEstados patentUnidos onsonre recombinanto DNAADN inrecombinante en 1974, listingmencionando thecomo inventorsinventores asa [[Herbert W. Boyer]] (professorprofesor atda the [[University ofde California, San Francisco]]) ande a [[Stanley N. Cohen]] (professorprofesor aten [[Stanford University]]); thisesta patentpatente wasfoi awardedconcedida inen 1980.<ref name="pmid|11810894">{{Cite journal
| last1 = Hughes | first1 = S.
| title = Making dollars out of DNA. The first major patent in biotechnology and the commercialization of molecular biology, 1974-1980
| hdl = 10161/8125
| url = https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/10161/8125/1/Hxdocs_makingdollarsoutofdna.pdf
}}</ref> TheO firstprimeiro licensedfármaco drugque generatedrecibiu usinglicenza recombinantxerado DNAusando technologya wastecnoloxía humando insulinADN recombinante foi a [[insulina]] humana, developeddesenvolvida bypor [[Genentech]] ande con licensedlicenza byde [[Eli Lilly and Company]].<ref name="pmid|6337396">{{Cite journal
| doi = 10.1126/science.6337396
| last1 = Johnson | first1 = I. S.
 
== Polémica ==
 
Scientists associated with the initial development of recombinant DNA methods recognized that the potential existed for organisms containing recombinant DNA to have undesirable or dangerous properties. At the 1975 [[Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA]], these concerns were discussed and a voluntary moratorium on recombinant DNA research was initiated for experiments that were considered particularly risky. This moratorium was widely observed until the National Institutes of Health (USA) developed and issued formal guidelines for rDNA work. Today, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant proteins are usually not regarded as dangerous. However, concerns remain about some organisms that express recombinant DNA, particularly when they leave the laboratory and are introduced into the environment or food chain. These concerns are discussed in the articles on [[genetically modified organism]]s and [[genetically modified food controversies]]. Furthermore, there are concerns about the by-products in biopharmaceutical production, where recombinant DNA result in specific protein products. The major by-product, termed [[host cell protein]], comes from the host expression system and poses a threat to the patient's health and the overall environment.<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Wang|first1=Xing|last2=Hunter|first2=Alan K.|last3=Mozier|first3=Ned M.|date=2009-06-15|title=Host cell proteins in biologics development: Identification, quantitation and risk assessment|journal=Biotechnology and Bioengineering|language=en|volume=103|issue=3|pages=446–458|doi=10.1002/bit.22304|pmid=19388135|issn=0006-3592}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Bracewell|first1=Daniel G.|last2=Francis|first2=Richard|last3=Smales|first3=C. Mark|date=2015-07-14|title=The future of host cell protein (HCP) identification during process development and manufacturing linked to a risk-based management for their control|journal=Biotechnology and Bioengineering|language=en|volume=112|issue=9|pages=1727–1737|doi=10.1002/bit.25628|issn=0006-3592|pmc=4973824|pmid=25998019}}</ref>
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