Diferenzas entre revisións de «Estado Islámico»

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O grupo foi descrito como unha organización terrorista polas [[Nacións Unidas]] e por moitos países de xeito individual. Estado Islámico é coñecido polos seus vídeos propagandísticos de decapitacións e outro tipo de execucións<ref name=PropagandaVideos>{{cite news |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/11/isis-propaganda-videos_n_6846688.html |title=A Short History Of ISIS Propaganda Videos |work=[[The World Post]] |date=11 March 2015}}</ref> a soldados e civís, incluíndo xornalistas e axuda humanitaria, así como pola destrución de lugares considerados patrimonio cultural.<ref>{{cite web |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150219092526/http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/iii/features/2015/02/13/feature-01 |url=http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/iii/features/2015/02/13/feature-01 |title=Iraq churches, mosques under ISIL attack |first=Khalid |last=al-Taie |publisher=Al-Shorfa |date=13 February 2015 |archive-date=19 February 2015}}</ref> As Nacións Unidas consideran a Estados Islámico responsables de violar os dereitos humanos e de crimes de guerra. EI tamén realizou [[limpeza étnica]] a grande escala no norte de Iraq.<ref name=amnestyethnic>{{cite web |title=Ethnic cleansing on a historic scale: The Islamic State's systematic targeting of minorities in northern Iraq |url=https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/8000/mde140112014en.pdf |publisher=Amnesty International |date=2 September 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150312220534/https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/8000/mde140112014en.pdf |archivedate=12 March 2015}}</ref>
 
EI naceu como ''[[Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad]]'' en 1999, prometendo lealdade a [[al-Qaeda]] e participaron na insurxencia iraquí despois da [[Guerra de Iraq|invasión do país de 2003]] por forzas occidentais e principalmente polos Estados Unidos. O grupo proclamouse a si mesmo [[califato mundial]]<ref>{{cite news |first=Bill |last=Roggio |author-link=Bill Roggio |url=http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/isis_announces_formation_of_ca.php |title=ISIS announces formation of Caliphate, rebrands as 'Islamic State' |work=[[Long War Journal]] |date=29 June 2014}}</ref><ref name="newname">{{cite news |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-declares-new-islamic-state-in-middle-east-with-abu-bakr-albaghdadi-as-emir-removing-iraq-and-syria-from-its-name-9571374.html |last=Withnall |first=Adam |title=Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East |date=29 June 2014 |work=The Independent |location=London}}</ref> e comezou a referirse a si mesmo como Estados Islámico (en {{lang-ar|الدولة الإسلامية}} ''ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah'') ou IS<ref name="What is IS">{{cite news |title=What is Islamic State? |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144 |work=BBC News|date=26 September 2014}}</ref> inen Junexuño de 2014. AsComo a caliphatecalifato, itreclamou claimsautoridade religiousrelixiosa, politicalpolítica ande militarymilitar authoritysobre overtódolos allmusulmáns [[Ummah|Muslimsdo worldwide]]mundo.<ref name=caliphate>{{cite web |title=What does ISIS' declaration of a caliphate mean? |work=Al Akhbar English |url=http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/20378 |date=30 June 2014}}. See also: {{harvc |contribution=Caliph, caliphate |first1=Wadad |last=Kadi |first2=Aram A. |last2=Shahin |url={{Google books|q1I0pcrFFSUC|page=81|plainurl=y}} |in=Bowering |year=2013}}</ref> A adopción do nome de Estado Islámico e a idea dun [[califato]] foron amplamente criticados, polo cal as Nacións Unidas, varios gobernos e representantes mundiais musulmáns rexeitaron a súa calidade de estado.<ref name="NYT-20151221">{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/21/opinion/a-medieval-antidote-to-isis.html |title=A Medieval Antidote to ISIS |last=Akyol |first=Mustafa |date=21 December 2015 |work=The New York Times}}</ref>
 
InEn SyriaSiria, theo groupgrupo conductedlevou grounda attackscabo onataques bothcontra [[Syrianas government|governmentforzas forces]]do andgoberno [[Syriane opposition|oppositionás factions]]forzas andda byoposición, Decembere en decembro de 2015 itcontrolaban heldunha agrande largeárea areado inoeste westernde Iraq ande easterno Syrialeste de Siria, containingcunha anpoboación estimatedestimada de 2.,8 toa 8 millionmillóns de peoplepersoas,<ref name="politico2015"/><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2015/02/05/how-isis-rules/ |title=How ISIS Rules |last=Birke |first=Sarah |website=The New York Review of Books|date=5 February 2017}}</ref> whereonde itcumprían enforceda itssúa interpretationpropia ofinterpretación da [[sharia lawxaria]]. ISILCrese isque believedEI toestá beoperativo operationalen in18 [[#Territorialpaíses controlen andtodo claims|18o countries]] across the worldmundo, includingincluíndo AfghanistanAfganistán ande PakistanPaquistán, withcon "aspiringpólas branchesaspirantes" inen MaliMalí, EgyptExipto, Somalia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and thee PhilippinesFilipinas.<ref>{{cite news |title=Islamic State and the crisis in Iraq and Syria in maps |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27838034 |work=BBC News|date=18 October 2016}}</ref><ref name="reuters-turfwar">{{cite news |title=Exclusive: In turf war with Afghan Taliban, Islamic State loyalists gain ground |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/29/us-afghanistan-islamic-state-idUSKCN0P91EN20150629 |agency=Reuters |date=29 June 2015}}</ref><ref name="Pakistani Taliban pledges allegiance to ISIL">{{cite news |title=Pakistan Taliban splinter group vows allegiance to Islamic State |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/18/us-pakistan-militants-is-idUSKCN0J20YQ20141118 |agency=Reuters |date=18 November 2014}}</ref><ref name="ISIL gains supporters" /> InEn 2015, ISILestimouse waso estimatedorzamento toanual havede anEI annualen budgetmáis of more thande US$1 billionbillón andde adólares forceestadounidenses ofe moreunha thanforza de máis de 30,&nbsp;000 fighterssoldados.<ref>{{Cite book |title=A History of ISIS |last=Gerges |first=Fawaz A. |publisher=Princeton University Press |year=2016 |isbn=9780691170008 |location=Princeton, New Jersey, USA |pages=21–22}}</ref>
 
In July 2017, the group lost control of its largest city, [[Mosul]], to the Iraqi army.<ref name=":6">{{Cite news |url=http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2017/07/11/528164/Lebanon-Hezbollah-Nasrallah-Mosul-liberation-Daesh-terrorists-Middle-East |title=PressTV-'US created, allowed regional funding of Daesh' |date=11 July 2017 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170711234141/http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2017/07/11/528164/Lebanon-Hezbollah-Nasrallah-Mosul-liberation-Daesh-terrorists-Middle-East |archivedate=11 July 2017 }}</ref> Following this major defeat, ISIL continued to lose territory to the various states and other military forces allied against it, until it controlled no meaningful territory by November 2017.<ref name="territorial-losses">[http://iswresearch.blogspot.ca/2017/08/russian-airstrikes-in-syria-july-17.html Russia's Syria Mirage] Institute for Study of War website. By Matti Suomenaro, et al. 13 August 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.</ref> U.S. military officials and simultaneous military analyses reported in December 2017 that the group retained a mere 2 percent of the territory they had previously held.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fox32chicago.com/news/dont-miss/isis-has-lost-98-percent-of-its-territory-officials-say|title=ISIS has lost 98 percent of its territory, officials say|last=FOX}}</ref> On 10 December 2017, Iraq's Prime Minister [[Haider al-Abadi]] said that Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of Islamic State from the country, three years after the militant group captured about a third of Iraq's territory.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theage.com.au/world/islamic-state-completely-evicted-from-iraq-iraqi-pm-says-20171210-h01x2r.html|title=Islamic State completely 'evicted' from Iraq, Iraqi PM says|date=9 December 2017|website=The Age}}</ref>
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