Diferenzas entre revisións de «Estado Islámico»

sen resumo de edición
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[[Ficheiro:Flag of Islamic State of Iraq.svg|miniatura|280px|Bandeira do Estado Islámico.]]
[[Ficheiro:Territorial control of the ISIS.svg|miniatura|280px|Territorio controlado por EI (21 de outubro de 2015).]]
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O '''Estado Islámico de Iraq e Levante''' ({{lang-ar|الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام}}), tamén coñecido como '''Estado Islámico de Iraq e Siria''' ('''ISIS''' en inglés, ou o '''Estado Islámico de Iraq e ash-Sham''', '''Estado Islámico''' ('''EI'''),<ref name="What is IS">{{cita novas|título=What is Islamic State?|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144|editor=BBC News|data=26 de setembro de 2014|dataacceso=9 de marzo de 2015}}</ref> ou '''Daesh''' ({{lang|ar|داعش}},<ref>{{cita web |url=https://www.freewordcentre.com/blog/2015/02/daesh-isis-media-alice-guthrie/ |título=Decoding Daesh: Why is the new name for ISIS so hard to understand? |nome=Alice |apelido=Guthrie |data=19 de febreiro de 2015 |dataacceso=15 de novembro de 2015 |editor=Free Word Centre |urlarquivo=https://web.archive.org/web/20151117000440/https://www.freewordcentre.com/blog/2015/02/daesh-isis-media-alice-guthrie/ |dataarquivo=17 de novembro de 2015 |urlmorta=si }}</ref> é un grupo militar extremista [[Wahhabismo|wahhabí]]/[[Xihad|xihadista salafí]] e autoproclamado [[califato]], quee estáantigo lideradoprotoestado e[[recoñecemento compostointernacional|non recoñecido]] que principalmenteseguía porunha árabesdoutrina [[SunnismoFundamentalismo islámico|sunnísfundamentalista]] de, [[Iraqsalafismo|salafí]] edo [[Siriasunnismo]].<ref Enname=Wahhabism>{{cita marzonovas de|autor=Fouad 2015al-Ibrahim tiña|título=Why oISIS controlis duna territoriothreat ocupadoto porSaudi dezArabia: millónsWahhabism's dedeferred persoaspromise en|editor=Al IraqAkhbar eEnglish Siria,|url=http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/21234 e|urlarquivo=https://web.archive.org/web/20140824121659/http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/21234 tiña|data=22 ode control nominalagosto de pequenas2014 áreas|dataarquivo=24 de [[Libia]],agosto [[Nixeria]]de e2014}}</ref><ref>{{cita [[Afganistán]]web |url=http://orientalreview.org/2014/09/23/islamic-state-and-the-policy-of-the-west/ O|título=Islamic grupoState taménand operathe oupolicy tenof seguidoresthe noutrasWest partes|apelido1=Dolgov do|nome1=Boris mundo,|editor=Oriental incluíndoReview o [[Norte|data=23 de África]] e [[Sursetembro de Asia]].2014}}<refp>{{cita novaslibro|apelido=Wilson|nome=Rodney|título=KurdsIslam accusedand ofEconomic 'ethnicPolicy|url={{Google cleansing'books|ejgkDQAAQBAJ|page=PA178|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|ano=2015|editorial=Edinburgh byUniversity SyriaPress|isbn=978-0-7486-8389-5|page=178}}<p>{{cite magazine rebels|url=http://www.cbsnewslrb.comco.uk/newsv38/n05/kurdspatrick-accusedcockburn/end-ethnictimes-cleansingfor-syriathe-rebels-isis/caliphate |dataaccesotitle=22End deTimes xuñofor dethe Caliphate? 2015|editorfirst=CBSPatrick News|datalast=15Cockburn de|date=3 xuñoMarch de2016 2015|work=London Review of Books |volume=38 |issue=5 |pages=29–30}}</refp>{{cite Oweb Estado|title=Does IslámicoIslamic nonState éhave unthe estadoeconomic conand recoñecementopolitical dainstitutions comunidadefor internacional.<ref>{{citafuture webdevelopment? |first1=Dmitry título |last1=Pastukhov Statehood|first2=Nathaniel (international law)|last2=Greenwold | url = https://www.lawucl.cornellac.eduuk/wexeconomics/statehood_international_lawnon-seminar/explore-econ16/accordian/greenwold_pastukhov-poster.pdf}}<p>{{cite book|last=Pedler|first=John|title=A websiteWord =Before [[Wex]]Leaving: |A editorFormer Diplomat's Weltanschauung|url={{Google [[Cornellbooks|A8nuBQAAQBAJ|page=PA99|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2015|publisher=Troubador University]]|isbn=978-1-78462-223-7|page=99}}<p>{{cite book|last1=Kerr|first1=Michael|last2=Larkin|first2=Craig|title=The dataaccesoAlawis =of 20Syria: deWar, xulloFaith deand 2015Politics }}</ref><ref>in the Levant|url={{citaGoogle novasbooks|urlkoeMCwAAQBAJ|page=PA21|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/13/us|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-mideast0-crisis19-syria045811-icrc-idUSKBN0M921N201503139|titlepage=Islamic21}}</ref> State-controlledEstados partsIslámico ofconseguiu Syria,a Iraqatención largelyglobal outa ofcomezos reach:de Red2014 Cross|dataacceso=25cando dedesprazou xuñoás deforzas 2015|data=13do goberno iraquí fóra de marzocidades estratéxicas na [[campaña de 2015}}</ref>Anbar (2013–14)|ofensiva iraquí occidental]],<ref name="reuters-turfwar"CNNanbar>{{citacite news novas|títulotitle=Exclusive:John InKerry turfholds wartalks within AfghanIraq Taliban,as Islamicmore Statecities loyalistsfall gainto ISIS militants ground|url=http://www.reuterscnn.com/article/20152014/06/2923/us-afghanistanworld/meast/iraq-islamic-state-idUSKCN0P91EN20150629crisis/ |datapublisher=29 deCNN xuño de 2015|dataaccesodate=623 deJune outubro de 20152014}}</ref><ref name="Militantseguida Attackda and[[Caída Supportde ZonesMosul|captura inde Afghanistan"Mosul]]<ref name=NYTmosul>{{cita novas |títulonome1=MilitantSuadad Attack|apelido1=Al-Salhy and Support Zones in|nome2=Tim Afghanistan|urlapelido2=http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/Militant%20Sanctuary%20in%20Afghanistan%20Map_090915%20%283%29_0.pdfArango |datatítulo=18Sunni deMilitants setembroDrive deIraqi Army Out of Mosul 2015|dataaccesoeditor=22The deNew setembroYork deTimes 2015|urlarquivourl=https://webwww.archivenytimes.orgcom/web2014/2015092306040006/http:11/world/www.understandingwar.orgmiddleeast/sites/default/files/Militant%20Sanctuary%20in%20Afghanistan%20Map_090915%20%283%29_0militants-in-mosul.pdfhtml |dataarquivodate=2310 deJune setembro de 2015|urlmorta=si2014}}</ref><ref name="Pakistanie Talibano pledges[[masacre allegiancede toSinjar]].<ref ISIL"name=CapturedSinjar>{{citacite novas|título=Pakistan Taliban splinternews group vows allegiance to Islamic State|url=httphttps://www.reutersnytimes.com/article/2014/1108/1804/us-pakistan-militants-is-idUSKCN0J20YQ20141118world/middleeast/iraq.html |datatitle=18Sunni deExtremists novembroin deIraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam 2014|dataaccesowork=19The deNew novembroYork deTimes |last1=Arango |first1=Tim |date=3 August 2014}}</ref>
 
O grupo foi descrito como unha organización terrorista polas [[Nacións Unidas]] e por moitos países de xeito individual. Estado Islámico é coñecido polos seus vídeos propagandísticos de decapitacións e outro tipo de execucións<ref name=PropagandaVideos>{{cite news |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/11/isis-propaganda-videos_n_6846688.html |title=A Short History Of ISIS Propaganda Videos |work=[[The World Post]] |date=11 March 2015}}</ref> a soldados e civís, incluíndo xornalistas e axuda humanitaria, así como pola destrución de lugares considerados patrimonio cultural.<ref>{{cite web |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150219092526/http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/iii/features/2015/02/13/feature-01 |url=http://mawtani.al-shorfa.com/en_GB/articles/iii/features/2015/02/13/feature-01 |title=Iraq churches, mosques under ISIL attack |first=Khalid |last=al-Taie |publisher=Al-Shorfa |date=13 February 2015 |archive-date=19 February 2015}}</ref> As Nacións Unidas consideran a Estados Islámico responsables de violar os dereitos humanos e de crimes de guerra. EI tamén realizou [[limpeza étnica]] a grande escala no norte de Iraq.<ref name=amnestyethnic>{{cite web |title=Ethnic cleansing on a historic scale: The Islamic State's systematic targeting of minorities in northern Iraq |url=https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/8000/mde140112014en.pdf |publisher=Amnesty International |date=2 September 2014 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150312220534/https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/8000/mde140112014en.pdf |archivedate=12 March 2015}}</ref>
 
EI naceu como ''[[Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad]]'' en 1999, prometendo lealdade a [[al-Qaeda]] e participaron na insurxencia iraquí despois da [[Guerra de Iraq|invasión do país de 2003]] por forzas occidentais e principalmente polos Estados Unidos. O grupo proclamouse a si mesmo [[califato mundial]]<ref>{{cite news |first=Bill |last=Roggio |author-link=Bill Roggio |url=http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2014/06/isis_announces_formation_of_ca.php |title=ISIS announces formation of Caliphate, rebrands as 'Islamic State' |work=[[Long War Journal]] |date=29 June 2014}}</ref><ref name="newname">{{cite news |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-declares-new-islamic-state-in-middle-east-with-abu-bakr-albaghdadi-as-emir-removing-iraq-and-syria-from-its-name-9571374.html |last=Withnall |first=Adam |title=Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East |date=29 June 2014 |work=The Independent |location=London}}</ref> e comezou a referirse a si mesmo como Estados Islámico (en {{lang-ar|الدولة الإسلامية}} ''ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah'') ou IS<ref name="What is IS">{{cite news |title=What is Islamic State? |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144 |work=BBC News|date=26 September 2014}}</ref> in June 2014. As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all [[Ummah|Muslims worldwide]].<ref name=caliphate>{{cite web |title=What does ISIS' declaration of a caliphate mean? |work=Al Akhbar English |url=http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/20378 |date=30 June 2014}}. See also: {{harvc |contribution=Caliph, caliphate |first1=Wadad |last=Kadi |first2=Aram A. |last2=Shahin |url={{Google books|q1I0pcrFFSUC|page=81|plainurl=y}} |in=Bowering |year=2013}}</ref> A adopción do nome de Estado Islámico e a idea dun [[califato]] foron amplamente criticados, polo cal as Nacións Unidas, varios gobernos e representantes mundiais musulmáns rexeitaron a súa calidade de estado.<ref name="NYT-20151221">{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/21/opinion/a-medieval-antidote-to-isis.html |title=A Medieval Antidote to ISIS |last=Akyol |first=Mustafa |date=21 December 2015 |work=The New York Times}}</ref>
 
In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both [[Syrian government|government forces]] and [[Syrian opposition|opposition factions]] and by December 2015 it held a large area in western Iraq and eastern Syria, containing an estimated 2.8 to 8 million people,<ref name="politico2015"/><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2015/02/05/how-isis-rules/ |title=How ISIS Rules |last=Birke |first=Sarah |website=The New York Review of Books|date=5 February 2017}}</ref> where it enforced its interpretation of [[sharia law]]. ISIL is believed to be operational in [[#Territorial control and claims|18 countries]] across the world, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, with "aspiring branches" in Mali, Egypt, Somalia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines.<ref>{{cite news |title=Islamic State and the crisis in Iraq and Syria in maps |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27838034 |work=BBC News|date=18 October 2016}}</ref><ref name="reuters-turfwar">{{cite news |title=Exclusive: In turf war with Afghan Taliban, Islamic State loyalists gain ground |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/29/us-afghanistan-islamic-state-idUSKCN0P91EN20150629 |agency=Reuters |date=29 June 2015}}</ref><ref name="Pakistani Taliban pledges allegiance to ISIL">{{cite news |title=Pakistan Taliban splinter group vows allegiance to Islamic State |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/18/us-pakistan-militants-is-idUSKCN0J20YQ20141118 |agency=Reuters |date=18 November 2014}}</ref><ref name="ISIL gains supporters" /> In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and a force of more than 30,000 fighters.<ref>{{Cite book |title=A History of ISIS |last=Gerges |first=Fawaz A. |publisher=Princeton University Press |year=2016 |isbn=9780691170008 |location=Princeton, New Jersey, USA |pages=21–22}}</ref>
 
In July 2017, the group lost control of its largest city, [[Mosul]], to the Iraqi army.<ref name=":6">{{Cite news |url=http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2017/07/11/528164/Lebanon-Hezbollah-Nasrallah-Mosul-liberation-Daesh-terrorists-Middle-East |title=PressTV-'US created, allowed regional funding of Daesh' |date=11 July 2017 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170711234141/http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2017/07/11/528164/Lebanon-Hezbollah-Nasrallah-Mosul-liberation-Daesh-terrorists-Middle-East |archivedate=11 July 2017 }}</ref> Following this major defeat, ISIL continued to lose territory to the various states and other military forces allied against it, until it controlled no meaningful territory by November 2017.<ref name="territorial-losses">[http://iswresearch.blogspot.ca/2017/08/russian-airstrikes-in-syria-july-17.html Russia's Syria Mirage] Institute for Study of War website. By Matti Suomenaro, et al. 13 August 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2018.</ref> U.S. military officials and simultaneous military analyses reported in December 2017 that the group retained a mere 2 percent of the territory they had previously held.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fox32chicago.com/news/dont-miss/isis-has-lost-98-percent-of-its-territory-officials-say|title=ISIS has lost 98 percent of its territory, officials say|last=FOX}}</ref> On 10 December 2017, Iraq's Prime Minister [[Haider al-Abadi]] said that Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of Islamic State from the country, three years after the militant group captured about a third of Iraq's territory.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theage.com.au/world/islamic-state-completely-evicted-from-iraq-iraqi-pm-says-20171210-h01x2r.html|title=Islamic State completely 'evicted' from Iraq, Iraqi PM says|date=9 December 2017|website=The Age}}</ref>
 
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