Diferenzas entre revisións de «Omatidio»

sen resumo de edición
 
O 90% máis interno do omatidio contén de 6 a 9 (dependendo da especie) [[célula fotorrecetora|células fotorreceptoras]] longas e delgadas no caso dalgunhas [[boolboreta]]s<ref name=briscoe2008>{{cite journal |pages=1805–13 |doi=10.1242/jeb.013045 |title=Reconstructing the ancestral butterfly eye: Focus on the opsins |year=2008 |last1=Briscoe |first1=A. D. |journal=Journal of Experimental Biology |volume=211 |issue=11 |pmid=18490396}}</ref> a miúdo abreviadas co nome de "[[célula R|células R]]" na literatura e xeralmente numeradas, por exemplo de R1 a R9.<ref name=briscoe2008/> Estas "células R" empaquetan estreitamente o omatidio. A porción de células R no eixe central do omatidio forman colectivamente unha guía para a luz, un tubo trnasparente, chamado '''rabdoma'''.
<!--
In true [[fly|flies]], the rhabdom has separated into seven independent rhabdomeres (there are actually eight, but the two central rhabdomeres responsible for color vision sit one atop the other), such that a small inverted 7-pixel image is formed in each ommatidium. Simultaneously, the rhabdomeres in adjacent ommatidia are aligned such that the field of view within an ommatidium is the same as that between ommatidia. The advantage of this arrangement is that the same visual axis is sampled from a larger area of the eye, thereby increasing sensitivity by a factor of seven, without increasing the size of the eye or reducing its acuity. Achieving this has also required the rewiring of the eye such that the axon bundles are twisted through 180 degrees (re-inverted), and each rhabdomere is united with those from the six adjacent ommatidia that share the same visual axis. Thus, at the level of the lamina - the first optical processing center of the [[insect brain]] - the signals are input in exactly the same manner as in the case of a normal apposition compound eye, but the image is enhanced. This visual arrangement is known as ''neural superposition''.<ref>Land, Michael F. and Nilsson, Dan-Eric. ''Animal Eyes'', Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 2012. pp. 163-164. {{ISBN|978-0-19-958114-6}}.</ref>
 
Nos [[dípteros]], o rabdoma está separado en sete rabdómeros independentes (hai en realidade oito, pero os dous rabdómeros centrais responsavbles da visión en cores sitúanse un enriba do outro), de modo que se forma unha peuena imaxe de 7 píxeles invertida en cada omatidio. Simultaneamente, os rabdómeros en omatidios adxacentes están aliñados de modo que o campo de visión dentro dun omatidio é o mesmo que entre omatidios. A vantaxe desta disposición é que o mesmo eixe visual é varrido desde unha área meirande dos ollos, incrementando así a sensibilidade nun factor de sete, sen incrementar o tamaño do ollo ou reducir a súa agudeza. Conseguir isto requiriu a reconexión do ollo de maneira que os feixes de axón queden xirados 180 graos (reinvertidos), e cada rabdómero está unido con aqueles desde os seis omatidios adxacentes que comparten o mesmo eixe visual. Así, ao nivel da lámina (o primeiro centro de procesamento óptico do [[cerebro de insecto|cerebro do insecto]]) os sinais entran exactamente da mesma maneira que no caso dun [[ollo composto]] de aposición normal, pero a imaxe é mellorada. Esta disposición visual coñécese como ''superposición neural''.<ref>Land, Michael F. and Nilsson, Dan-Eric. ''Animal Eyes'', Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 2012. pp. 163-164. {{ISBN|978-0-19-958114-6}}.</ref>
<!--
Since an image from the compound eye is created from the independent picture elements produced by ommatidia, it is important for the ommatidia to react only to that part of the scene directly in front of them. To prevent light entering at an angle from being detected by the ommatidium it entered, or by any of the neighboring ommatidia, six [[pigment cells]] are present. The pigment cells line the outside of each ommatidium. Each pigment cell is situated at the apex of the hexagons and thus lines the outside of three ommatidia. Light entering at an angle passes through the thin cross-section of the photoreceptor cell, with only a tiny chance of exciting it, and is absorbed by the pigment cell, before it can enter a neighboring ommatidium. In many species, in low-light situations, the pigment is withdrawn, so that light entering the eye might be detected by any of several ommatidia. This enhances light detection but lowers resolution.
 
191.039

edicións