Diferenzas entre revisións de «Chicago Pile-1»

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[[File:Stagg Field reactor.jpg|miniatura|dereita|300px|Ilustración do Chicago Pile-1]]
'''Chicago Pile-1''' (CP-1) wasfoi theo world's first artificialprimeiro [[nuclear reactor nuclear]] artificial da historia. OnO 2 Decemberde decembro de 1942, theiniciouse firstno humanCP-made1 self-sustaininga primeira [[reacción nuclear chainen reactioncadea]] wasautosostible initiatediniciada inpolos CP-1[[ser humano|humanos]], duringnun anexperimento experimentliderado led bypor [[Enrico Fermi]]. TheO reactor'sdesenvolvemento developmentdeste wasreactor partfoi ofparte thedo [[Proxecto Manhattan Project]], the [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] effort toconstruído createpolo [[atomicLaboratorio bombMetalúrxico]]s duringna [[WorldUniversidade Warde IIChicago]]., Itbaixo wasas builtbancadas bydo thecampo [[Metallurgical Laboratory]] at thede [[Universityfútbol of Chicagoamericano]], under the west viewing stands of the originalde [[Stagg Field]]. O propio Fermi describeddescribiu theeste apparatusreactor ascomo "aunha primitiva crudepila pilede ofladrillos blacknegros brickse andvigas woodende timbersmadeira".{{sfn|Fermi|1982|p=24}}
 
O reactor foi ensamblado en novembro de 1942 por un equipo liderado por Fermi, [[Leo Szilard]], [[Herbert L. Anderson]], [[Walter Zinn]], [[Martin D. Whitaker]] e [[George Weil]]. Contiña 45 000 bloques de [[grafito]] cun peso de 360 toneladas usados como [[moderador de neutróns|moderadores de neutróns]], utilizando 5.4 toneladas de metal de [[uranio]] e 45 toneladas de [[óxido de uranio]] como combustible. Parte dos neutróns libres producidos polo decaemento natural do uranio absorbíanse noutros átomos de uranio, provocando unha [[fisión nuclear]] deses átomos e liberando neutróns libres adicionais. A diferenza da maioría de reactores posteriores, non tiña protección contra a [[radiación]] ou [[sistema de refrixeración]] xa que operaba a unha potencia moi baixa, de ó redor de medio [[watt]].
The reactor was assembled in November 1942, by a team that included Fermi, [[Leo Szilard]] (who had previously [[Leo_Szilard#Developing_the_idea_of_the_nuclear_chain_reaction|formulated an idea]] for [[Nuclear_chain_reaction#History|non-fission chain reaction]]), [[Herbert L. Anderson]], [[Walter Zinn]], [[Martin D. Whitaker]], and [[George Weil]]. It contained 45,000 [[graphite]] blocks weighing {{convert|400|ST}} used as [[neutron moderator]]s, and was fueled by {{convert|6|ST}} of [[uranium]] metal and {{convert|50|ST}} of [[uranium oxide]]. In the pile, some of the free neutrons produced by the natural decay of uranium were absorbed by other uranium atoms, causing [[nuclear fission]] of those atoms, and the release of additional free neutrons. Unlike most subsequent nuclear reactors, it had no radiation shielding or cooling system as it operated at very low power – about one-half watt. The shape of the pile was intended to be roughly spherical, but as work proceeded, Fermi calculated that critical mass could be achieved without finishing the entire pile as planned.
 
InEn 1943, o CP-1 wastrasladouse moved toa [[Red Gate Woods]], ande reconfiguredreconfigurouse toconverténdose becomeno '''Chicago Pile-2''' (CP-2). There, it wasAlí operatedoperou untilata 1954, whenano itno wasque dismantledfoi anddesmantelado buriede soterrado. TheAs standsbancadas atde Stagg Field weredemoleronse demolisheden inagosto Augustde 1957;, thee siteo islugar nowquedou adesignado como [[NationalFito HistoricHistórico LandmarkNacional]] and ae [[Fito de Chicago Landmark]].
 
==Notas==
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===Bibliografía===
* {{cite book |last=Allardice |first=Corbin |last2=Trapnell |first2=Edward R. |date=December 1982 |pp=1–21 |contribution=The First Pile |title=The First Reactor |location=Oak Ridge, Tennessee |publisher=United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information |url=https://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0044.pdf |oclc=22115 |ref=harv }}
* {{cite book |last=Anderson |first=Herbert L. |contribution=Assisting Fermi |pp=66–104 |editor-first=Jane |editor-last=Wilson |title=All In Our Time: The Reminiscences of Twelve Nuclear Pioneers |location=Chicago |year=1975 |publisher=Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists |oclc=1982052 |ref=harv }}
* {{cite book |last=Bonolis |first=Luisa |contribution=Enrico Fermi's Scientific Work |pages=314–394 |editor-last=Bernardini |editor-first=C. |editor2-first=Luisa |editor2-last=Bonolis |year=2001 |title=Enrico Fermi: His Work and Legacy |location=Bologna |publisher=Società Italiana di Fisica: Springer |isbn=88-7438-015-1 |oclc=56686431 |ref=harv }}
* {{cite book |last=Compton |first=Arthur |authorlink=Arthur Compton |year=1956 |title=Atomic Quest |location=New York |publisher=Oxford University Press |oclc=173307 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Fermi |first= Enrico |authorlink=Enrico Fermi |date=December 1982 |pp=22–26 |contribution=Fermi's Own Story |title=The First Reactor |location=Oak Ridge, Tennessee |publisher=United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information |url=https://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0044.pdf |oclc=22115 |ref=harv }}
*{{cite book |last = Groves |first = Leslie |authorlink = Leslie Groves |title = Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project
|location = New York |publisher = Harper |year = 1962 |isbn = 0-306-70738-1 |oclc = 537684 |ref = harv }}