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== Descubrimento e nome ==
AnUnha isolatedpoboación populationillada ofde orangutansorangutáns inna theárea de Batang Toru area of Southde Tapanuli wasfoi reporteddescuberta inen 1939.<ref>{{citecita booklibro|titletítulo=Natuur in Zuid- en Oost- Borneo. Fauna, flora en natuurbescherming in de Zuider- en Ooster-Afdeeling van Borneo. In 3 Jaren Indisch Natuur Leven: Opstellen over Landschappen, Dieren en Planten, Tevens Elfde Verslag (1936-1938)|lastapelido=|firstnome=|publishereditorial=Nederlandsch-Indische Vereeniging tot Natuurbescherming|yearano=1939|isbn=|locationlocalización=Batavia, Indonesia|pagespáxinas=334–411|languagelingua=Dutch|trans-title=Nature in South and East Borneo. Fauna, flora and nature conservation in the southern and eastern part of Borneo. In 3 Years Dutch Indies Nature Life: Compilation on Landscapes, Animals and Plants, Eleven Reports (1936-1938)neerlandés}}</ref> TheA populationpoboación wasfoi rediscoveredredescuberta bypor anunha expeditionexpedición toá theárea area inen 1997,<ref>{{citecita web |firstnome=Erik |lastapelido=Meijaard |titletítulo=A Sumatran Wonderland |url=http://jakartaglobe.id/opinion/erik-meijaard-sumatran-wonderland/ |websitepáxina-web=JakartaGlobe |access-datedataacceso=2017-11-11 de novembro de 2017}}</ref> butpero itnon wasfoi notrecoñecida recognizedcomo asunha aespecie distinctdiferente species thendaquela.<ref name="Gill_V">{{CiteCita newsnovas |url=http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-41848816 |titletítulo=New great ape species identified |lastapelido=Gill |firstnome=Victoria |datedata=2 de novembro de 2017-11-02|workeditor=[[BBC News]]|access-datedataacceso=3 de novembro de 2017-11-03|archive-urllingua=|archive-date=|dead-url=|language=en-GBinglés}}</ref> ''Pongo tapanuliensis'' wasfoi identifiedidentificado ascomo aunha distinctespecie species,despois followingdun adetallado detailedestudo [[PhylogeneticÁrbore treefiloxenética|phylogeneticfiloxenético]] study inen 2017. TheO studyestudo analyzedanalizou theas mostras [[Genetics|geneticxenética]]s samples ofde 37 wildorangutáns orangutanssalvaxes from populationsde acrosspoboación de Sumatra ande Borneo ande conductedlevouse a cabo unha análise [[MorphologyMorfoloxía (biologybioloxía)|morphologicalmorfolóxica]] analysis of thedos [[Skeleton|skeletonsesqueleto]]s ofde 34 adultmachos malesadultos.<ref name="curbio" /> TheO primaryespécime specimenprimario ofdo the studyestudo, ande theo [[holotypeholotipo]] ofda the speciesespecie, wasfoi theo skeletonesqueleto ofdun anmacho adultadulto malede from Batang Toru thatque diedmorreu afterdespois beingde woundedser byferido localspolos inlocais Novemberen novembro de 2013.<ref name="curbio" /><ref name="Goldman">{{Cite news |url=https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/11/new-orangutan-species-sumatra-borneo-indonesia-animals/|title=New Species of Orangutan Is Rarest Great Ape on Earth |last=Goldman |first=Jason G. |date=2017-11-02|work=|access-date=2017-11-06|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|publisher=[[National Geographic Society]]}}</ref> The skull and [[Postcrania|postcranium]] of the specimen are stored in the [[Zoological Museum of Bogor]].<ref name="curbio" /> The [[skull]] and [[Tooth|teeth]] of the Batang Toru male differed significantly from those of the other two orangutan species.<ref name="Stokstad">{{Cite journal|last=Stokstad|first=Erik|date=2017-11-02|title=New great ape species found, sparking fears for its survival|url=http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/11/new-great-ape-species-found-sparking-fears-its-survival|journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]]|language=en|volume=|pages=|doi=10.1126/science.aar3900|via=}}</ref> The genetic study also indicated that the Batang Toru population should be considered a separate species, with the [[Genome|genomes]] of the two individuals from the population showing distinctive features.<ref name="curbio" />
 
The [[Specific name (zoology)|specific name]], ''tapanuliensis,'' as well as the [[common name]], Tapanuli orangutan, refer to Tapanuli, the area in [[North Sumatra]] where the species lives.<ref name="curbio" />
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