Diferenzas entre revisións de «Mesalina»

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'''Mesalina''' (en {{lang-la|Valeria Messalina}}),<ref>''Prosopographia Imperii Romani'' V 161</ref> nada c. [[17]]/[[20]], e finada no [[48]], foi a muller do emperador romano [[Claudio]]. Era curmá paterna do emperador [[Nerón]], curmá segunda do emperador [[Calígula]], e sobriña neta do emperador [[Octavio Augusto|Augusto]]. Unha muller poderosa e influente cunha reputación de promiscuidade, presuntamente conspirou contra o seu marido e foi [[Pena de morte|executada]] cando se descubriu o seu complot.
 
== Reputación ==
Co seu ascenso ó poder, Messalina entra na historia cunha reputación de ser desapiadada, depredadora e sexualmente insaciable. O seu esposo é representado como doadamente conducido por ela e inconsciente dos seus moitos adulterios. No ano [[48]], el marchou de viaxe e foi informado cando regresou que Mesalina chegara a casar co seu último amante, o senador [[Caio Silio (cónsul designado)|Caio Silio]]. Malia que moitos a tería condenado a morte, o emperador ofreceulle outra oportunidade. Ó ver iso como unha debilidade, un dos seus principais oficiais argallou de costas ó emperador e ordenou a morte de Mesalina. Ó escoitar as novas, o emperador non reaccionou e sinxelamente pediu outro cálice de viño. The Roman Senate then ordered a [[damnatio memoriae]] so that Messalina's name would be removed from all public and private places and all statues of her would be taken down.
 
[[File:MessalineLisisca.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|Messalina working in a brothel: etching by Agostino Carracci, late 16th century]]
The historians who relay such stories, principally [[Tacitus]] and [[Suetonius]], wrote some 70 years after the events in an environment hostile to the imperial line to which Messalina had belonged. Suetonius’ history is largely scandal-mongering. Tacitus claims to be transmitting ‘what was heard and written by my elders’ without naming sources other than the memoirs of [[Agrippina the Younger]], who had arranged to displace Messalina’s children in the imperial succession and was therefore particularly interested in blackening her predecessor’s name.<ref>K.A.Hosack, “Can One Believe the Ancient Sources That Describe Messalina?“, ''Constructing the Past'' 12.1, 2011]</ref> It has been argued that what passes for history is largely a result of the political sanctions that followed her death.<ref>Harriet I. Flower, ''The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture'', University of North Carolina 2011, [https://books.google.com/books?id=JSccdOtgTboC&lpg=PA42-IA3&ots=o4NqY5e0aB&dq=%22The%20sanctions%20against%20the%20memory%20of%20valeria%20messalina%22&pg=PA42-IA3#v=onepage&q=%22The%20sanctions%20against%20the%20memory%20of%20valeria%20messalina%22&f=false pp 182-9]</ref>
 
Accusations of sexual excess were a tried and tested [[smear tactic]] and the result of ‘politically motivated hostility’.<ref>Thomas A. J. McGinn, ''Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome'', Oxford University 1998 [https://books.google.com/books?id=tYrwh9ZD_6wC&lpg=PA170&dq=Messalina%20Juvenal&pg=PA170#v=onepage&q=Messalina%20Juvenal&f=false p 170]</ref> Two accounts especially have added to her notoriety. One is the story of her all-night sex competition with a prostitute in Book X of [[Pliny the Elder]]'s ''[[Natural History (Pliny)|Natural History]]'', according to which the competition lasted for 24 hours and Messalina won with a score of 25 partners.<ref>Online translation, [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0137%3Abook%3D10 X ch.83]</ref> The poet [[Juvenal]] gives an equally well known description in his [[Satire VI|sixth satire]] of how the Empress used to work clandestinely all night in a brothel under the name of the She-Wolf.<ref>[http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/JuvenalSatires6.htm#_Toc282858857 Poetry in translation, VI.114-135]</ref> He also alludes to the story of how she compelled Gaius Silius to divorce his wife and marry her in his Satire X.<ref>Translation by A. S. Kline, [http://www.poetryintranslation.com/PITBR/Latin/JuvenalSatires10.htm#_Toc284248936 lines 329-336]</ref>
 
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