Diferenzas entre revisións de «Perda de peso»

Engado referencias.
(Creada como tradución da páxina "Adelgazamiento")
 
(Engado referencias.)
[[Ficheiro:Woman_Measuring_Waist.jpg|miniatura|275x275px|A perda de peso intencional refírese á perda de [[Índice de masa corporal|masa corporal]] total, como resultado dun esforzo para manterse en forma, mellorar a [[saúde]] e/ou para cambiar a [[Apariencia física|aparencia]].]]
'''Adelgazamento''' ou '''perda de peso'''<ref name="NCI-PDQ">{{cite web|last=National Cancer Institute|title=Nutrition in cancer care (PDQ)|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0032688/|work=Physician Data Query|publisher=National Cancer Institute|accessdate=3 July 2013|date=November 2011}}</ref>, no contexto da [[medicina]], [[saúde]] ou ''[[fitness]]'', é unha redución da [[masa corporal]] dun individuo ou [[Animais|animal]], por razón dunha perda media de [[Líquido|líquidos]], [[graxa]] ou de [[Tecido (bioloxía)|tecidos]] como o [[músculo]], [[tendón]] ou [[Tecido conxuntivo|tecido conxuntivo.]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/high-protein-diet-weight-loss|title=High-Protein Diet for Weight Loss|publisher=WebMD}}</ref> O adelgazamento pode ser xeneralizado, é dicir, afectando a todo o [[Ser vivo|organismo]], ou ben localizado como no caso dunha [[atrofia]] muscular por inmovilización.<ref name="encarta">''[http://web.archive.org/web/http://es.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_961537470/Adelgazamiento.html Adelgazamiento]'' (en español). </ref> Entrada a [[terceira idade]], o corpo tende a perder de 1 a 2 [[Quilogramo|kg]] de peso cada [[década]].<ref>E P. BOURAS; S M. LANGE; y J S. SCOLAPIO. </ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Mangili A, Murman DH, Zampini AM, Wanke CA|title=Nutrition and HIV infection: review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living cohort|journal=Clin. Infect. Dis.|volume=42|issue=6|pages=836–42|year=2006|pmid=16477562|doi=10.1086/500398|last2=Murman|last3=Zampini|last4=Wanke}}</ref>
 
== Etioloxía ==
O adelgazamento pode ser non-intencional, como no caso de [[Doenza|enfermidades]] crónicas, tales como a [[tuberculose]]<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Pathak|first=K.|last2=Soares|first2=M. J.|last3=Calton|first3=E. K.|last4=Zhao|first4=Y.|last5=Hallett|first5=J.|date=2014-06-01|title=Vitamin D supplementation and body weight status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials|pmid=24528624|journal=Obesity Reviews: an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity|volume=15|issue=6|pages=528–537|doi=10.1111/obr.12162|issn=1467-789X}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1042/CS20120223|title=The defence of body weight: A physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss|year=2013|last1=Sumithran|first1=Priya|last2=Proietto|first2=Joseph|journal=Clinical Science|volume=124|issue=4|pages=231–41|pmid=23126426}}</ref> e certas formas de [[cancro]] — o [[cancro de pulmón]] e os do tubo dixestivo son as [[Neoplasia|neoplasias]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/wgtloss.html|publisher=[[US Food and Drug Administration]]|title=The facts about weight loss products and programs|work=DHHS Publication No (FDA) 92-1189|year=1992|accessdate=2013-05-14|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060926035920/http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/wgtloss.html|archivedate=26 September 2006}}</ref> malignas máis frecuentes nos pacientes que experimentan perda de peso non intencional —.<ref name="harrison">Harrison Principios de Medicina Interna 16a edición (2006). <div class="cx-overlay"><div class="cx-spinner"><div class="bounce1"></div><div class="bounce2"></div><div class="bounce3"></div></div></div></ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Nedeltcheva|first1=AV|last2=Kilkus|first2=JM|last3=Imperial|first3=J|last4=Schoeller|first4=DA|last5=Penev|first5=PD|title=Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity|journal=Annals of Internal Medicine|volume=153|issue=7|pages=435–41|year=2010|pmid=20921542|pmc=2951287|doi=10.7326/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00006|url=http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?volume=153&page=435}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Harmon, Katherine|url=http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=sleep-might-help-dieters-shed-more-2010-10-04|title=Sleep might help dieters shed more fat|work=Scientific American|date=4 October 2010|accessdate=20 October 2010}}</ref> Outras formas de perda non-intencional de peso inclúen trastornos que causen [[Vómito|vómitos]], [[diarrea]], e enfermidades pobremente controladas como a [[Diabetes mellitus|diabetes]] e o [[Hipertiroidismo|hipertiroidismo.]]<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MmZcctuB3fsC&pg=PA67|page=67|title=The role of nutrition in maintaining health in the nation's elderly: evaluating coverage of nutrition services for the Medicare population|author=Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Nutrition Services for Medicare Beneficiaries|isbn=978-0-309-06846-8|date=2000-06-09}}</ref>
 
Noutros casos, o adelgazamento pode ser intencional, un esforzo por parte do individuo, xeralmente centrado en [[Dieta|dietas]], para mellorar a súa saúde ou a súa aparencia. A perda de peso terapéutica, especialmente en persoas con [[obesidade]] pode diminuír o risco da aparición de enfermidades como a [[hipertensión arterial]], [[Cardiopatía|cardiopatías]] e certas formas de [[Cancro|cancro.]] As dietas excesivas ou mal controladas poden producir [[desnutrición]], [[anemia]], [[atrofia muscular]], [[hipovitaminosis]] e desequilibrios electrolíticos e [[Deshidratación|hídricos]].<ref name="encarta">''[http://web.archive.org/web/http://es.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_961537470/Adelgazamiento.html Adelgazamiento]'' (en español). </ref><ref name="Andersen2">{{Cite journal|doi=10.1080/00207148508406645|title=Hypnotizability as a factor in the hypnotic treatment of obesity|last=Andersen|first=M. S.|year=1985|journal=International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis|volume=33|pages=150–159|issue=2|pmid=4018924}}</ref><ref name="Itoh-20132">{{cite journal|last=Itoh|first=M|author2=Tsuji, T|author3=Nemoto, K|author4=Nakamura, H|author5=Aoshiba, K|title=Undernutrition in patients with COPD and its treatment|journal=Nutrients|date=Apr 18, 2013|volume=5|issue=4|pages=1316–35|pmid=23598440|doi=10.3390/nu5041316|pmc=3705350}}</ref>
 
== Control de peso ==
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O peso das persoas pode ser avaliado calculando o seu índice de masa corporal que é un método simple e amplamente usado para estimar a proporción de graxa corporal.<ref>Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A, Goran MI, Dietz WH: «Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents», artículo en la revista ''Am J Clin Nutr'', 75: págs.&nbsp;978-985; 2002. </ref><ref name="Barabasz2">{{Cite journal|doi=10.1002/1098-108X(198905)8:3<335::AID-EAT2260080309>3.0.CO;2-O|title=Hypnotizability and weight loss in obese subjects|year=1989|last1=Barabasz|first1=Marianne|last2=Spiegel|first2=David|journal=International Journal of Eating Disorders|volume=8|issue=3|pages=335–341}}</ref><ref name="Kirsch2">{{Cite journal|id={{INIST|3143031}}|title=Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments–another meta-reanalysis|last=Kirsch|first=I.|date=June 1996|journal=Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology|volume=64|pages=517–9|issue=3|doi=10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.517|pmid=8698945}}</ref><ref name="Allison2">{{Cite journal|doi=10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.513|title=Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: A meta-analytic reappraisal|last1=Allison|first1=David B.|last2=Faith|first2=Myles S.|journal=Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology|volume=64|date=June 1996|pages=513–516|issue=3|pmid=8698944}}</ref> O IMC foi desenvolvido polo [[Estatística|estatístico]] e [[Antropometría|antropometrista]] [[Bélxica|belga]] [[Adolphe Quetelet|Adolphe Quetelet.]]<ref>Quetelet LAJ. (1871). </ref><ref name="IQWiG-health-benefits2">{{cite web|last=Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care|title=Health benefits of losing weight|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004993/|work=Fact sheet, Informed Health Online|publisher=Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care|accessdate=27 June 2013}}</ref> Este é calculado dividindo o peso do suxeito (en quilogramos) polo cadrado da súa altura (en metros), por tanto é expresado en [[Quilogramo|kg]] / [[Metro cadrado|m²]].<ref name="Nygaard-20102">{{cite journal|last=Nygaard|first=B|title=Hyperthyroidism (primary)|journal=Clinical evidence|date=Jul 19, 2010|volume=2010|pmid=21418670|pmc=3275323|pages=0611}}</ref>
O IMC foi desenvolvido polo [[Estatística|estatístico]] e [[Antropometría|antropometrista]] [[Bélxica|belga]] [[Adolphe Quetelet|Adolphe Quetelet.]]<ref>Quetelet LAJ. (1871). </ref> Este é calculado dividindo o peso do suxeito (en quilogramos) polo cadrado da súa altura (en metros), por tanto é expresado en [[Quilogramo|kg]] / [[Metro cadrado|m²]].
 
Os organismos gobernamentais en [[Estados Unidos de América|EUA]] determinan o sobrepeso e a obesidade usando o índice de masa corporal (IMC), utilizando o peso e altura para determinar a graxa corporal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/executive-summary/|title=Executive Summary|work=Dietary Guidelines 2015–2020|accessdate=2 May 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/choosing.htm|title=Choosing a safe and successful weight loss program|work=Weight-control Information Network|publisher=National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases|date=April 2008|accessdate=2011-01-26}}</ref> Un IMC entre 25 e 29,9 é considerado sobrepeso e calquera valor sobre 30 é obesidade. Individuos cun IMC por encima de 30 incrementan o risco de perigo para a saúde.<ref>The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity; U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of The Surgeon General; Washington, D.C. Disponible en: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/CalltoAction.pdf. </ref><ref name="NICE-Diabetes-20042">{{cite web|last=National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK)|title=Type 1 diabetes in adults: National clinical guideline for diagnosis and management in primary and secondary care|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0016045/|work=NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 15.1|publisher=Royal College of Physicians UK|accessdate=3 July 2013}}</ref>
 
A OMS ([[Organización Mundial da Saúde]]) establece unha definición comunmente en uso cos seguintes valores, acordados en 1997, publicados en 2000 e axustados no 2010:<ref>World Health Organization Technical report series 894: "Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic."</ref><ref name="Mangili 20062">{{cite journal|last=Mangili|first=A|author2=Murman, DH|author3=Zampini, AM|author4=Wanke, CA|title=Nutrition and HIV infection: review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living cohort|journal=Clinical Infectious Diseases|date=Mar 15, 2006|volume=42|issue=6|pages=836–42|pmid=16477562|doi=10.1086/500398}}</ref>
* IMC menos de 18,5 é por baixo do peso normal.<ref>{{cite web|last=Albgomi|title=Bariatric Surgery Highlights and Facts|url=http://www.bariatricguide.org/what-is-bariatric-surgery/|work=Bariatric Surgery Information Guide|publisher=bariatricguide.org|accessdate=13 June 2013}}</ref>
* IMC menos de 18,5 é por baixo do peso normal.
* IMC de 18,5-24,9 é peso normal<ref>[http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/cr/bariatricsurgery.html «Bariatric Surgery»]. <div class="cx-overlay"><div class="cx-spinner"><div class="bounce1"></div><div class="bounce2"></div><div class="bounce3"></div></div></div></ref>
* IMC de 18,5-24,9 é peso normal
* IMC de 25,0-29,9 é sobrepeso.<ref name="Alibhai 20052">{{cite journal|last=Alibhai|first=SM|author2=Greenwood, C|author3=Payette, H|title=An approach to the management of unintentional weight loss in elderly people|journal=Canadian Medical Association Journal|date=Mar 15, 2005|volume=172|issue=6|pages=773–80|pmid=15767612|doi=10.1503/cmaj.1031527|pmc=552892}}</ref>
* IMC de 25,0-29,9 é sobrepeso.
* IMC de 30,0-34,9 é obesidade clase I.<ref name="Serretti-20102">{{cite journal|last=Serretti|first=A|author2=Mandelli, L|title=Antidepressants and body weight: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis|journal=The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry|date=October 2010|volume=71|issue=10|pages=1259–72|pmid=21062615|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0030671/|doi=10.4088/JCP.09r05346blu}}</ref>
* IMC de 30,0-34,9 é obesidade clase I.
* IMC de 35,0-39,9 é obesidade clase II.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=34790 «NICE issues guidance on surgery for morbid obesity»]. <div class="cx-overlay"><div class="cx-spinner"><div class="bounce1"></div><div class="bounce2"></div><div class="bounce3"></div></div></div></ref><ref name="Thomas2">Thomas, Paul R. (January–February 2005). "Dietary Supplements For Weight Loss?". Nutrition Today 40 (1): 6–12.</ref>
* IMC de 35,0-39,9 é obesidade clase II.
* IMC de 40,0 ou maior é obesidade clase III, grave (ou mórbida).<ref name="Sarnes-20112">{{cite journal|last=Sarnes|first=E|author2=Crofford, L|author3=Watson, M|author4=Dennis, G|author5=Kan, H|author6=Bass, D|title=Incidence and US costs of corticosteroid-associated adverse events: a systematic literature review|journal=Clinical therapeutics|date=Oct 2011|volume=33|issue=10|pages=1413–32|pmid=21999885|doi=10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.09.009}}</ref>
* IMC de 40,0 ou maior é obesidade clase III, grave (ou mórbida).
* IMC de 35,0 ou maior na presenza de polo menos unha ou outra morbilidad significativa é tamén clasificada por algunhas persoas como '''[[Obesidad mórbida|obesidade mórbida]]'''.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o{{cite journal|journal=34790Shiraz «NICEE-Medical issuesJournal|author=Massompoor guidanceSM|title=Unintentional onweight surgery for morbid obesity»]. <div classloss|volume="cx-overlay"><div class5|issue="cx-spinner"><div class2|date="bounce1"></div><divApril class2004|url="bounce2"></div><div class="bounce3"></div></div></div></ref><ref>[http://wwwsemj.surgerysums.uscac.eduir/divisionsvol5/crapr2004/bariatricsurgeryrwtloss.html «Bariatric Surgery»]. <div class="cx-overlay"><div class="cx-spinner"><div class="bounce1"></div><div class="bounce2"></div><div class="bounce3"></div></div></div>htm}}</ref>
Nun marco clínico, os médicos toman en conta a raza, a etnia, a masa magra ([[musculatura]]), idade, sexo e outros factores os cales poden infectar a interpretación do índice de masa corporal. O IMC sobreestima a graxa corporal en persoas moi musculosas e a graxa corporal pode ser subestimada en persoas que perderon masa corporal (moitos anciáns).<ref name="NICE-NutrSupport">{{cite web|last=National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK)|title=Nutrition Support for Adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0009169/|work=NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 32|publisher=National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK)|date=February 2006}}</ref>
 
A obesidade leve como é definida segundo o IMC, non é un factor de risco cardiovascular e por tanto o IMC non pode ser usado como un único predictor clínico e epidemiolóxico da saúde cardiovascular.<ref>{{Cita publicación periódica|apelidos=Romero-Corral A, Montori VM, Somers VK, ''et al''|título=Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: a systematic review of cohort studies|revista=Lancet|número=9536|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69251-9|PMID=16920472}}</ref><ref name="CC-Burden2">{{cite journal|last=Burden|first=S|author2=Todd, C|author3=Hill, J|author4=Lal, S|title=Pre‐operative Nutrition Support in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery|journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews|year=2012|issue=11|pmid=23152265|laysummary=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0049722/|doi=10.1002/14651858.CD008879.pub2|volume=11|pages=CD008879|editor1-last=Burden|editor1-first=Sorrel}}</ref><ref><nowiki>{{DRAG|Adelgazamento}}</nowiki></ref>
 
== Véxase tamén ==
{{Galizionario}}
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=== NotasOutros artigos ===
* [[Suicidio]]
{{listaref|2}}
* [[Obesidade]]
* [[Hixiene]]
* [[Exercicio físico]]
* [[Saúde]]
* [[Índice de masa corporal]]
* [[Dieta]]
 
=== Ligazóns externas ===
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004993/ Health benefits of losing weight] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/ By IQWiG at PubMed Health], {{En}}.
* [http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/index.htm Weight-control Information Network] [[U.S. National Institutes of Health|U.S. National Institutes of Health,]] {{En}}[[U.S. National Institutes of Health|.]]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0032508/ Nutrition in cancer care] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/ By NCI at PubMed Health,] {{En}}[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/ .]
* [https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003107.htm Unintentional weight loss,] {{En}}[https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003107.htm .]
 
== Notas ==
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[[Categoría:Dietas]]
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