Diferenzas entre revisións de «Invasión turca de Chipre»

sen resumo de edición
(creo a partir da en.wiki)
 
[[Ficheiro:Cyprus 1973 ethnic neutral.svg|miniatura|250px|Mapa étnico de Chipre en 1973. En amarelo os grego-chipriotas, en púrpura os turcochipriotas e en vermello as bases británicas.]]
A '''Invasión turca de Chipre'''<ref name="Morelli2011">{{cita libro|autor=Vincent Morelli|título=Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dyWwReoc81oC&pg=PA1|data=abril de 2011|editor=DIANE Publishing|isbn=978-1-4379-8040-0|páxina=1|quote=The Greek Cypriots and much of the international community refer to it as an “invasion.}}</ref> (en {{lang-tr|Kıbrıs Harekâtı}} e en {{lang-el|Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο}}) foi unha [[invasión militar]] [[Turquía|turca]] da [[illa]] de [[Chipre]]. Comezou o 20 de xullo de 1974, despois do [[Golpe de Estado en Chipre de 1974|golpe de estado chipriota]] do 15 de xullo de 1974.
 
TheO coupgolpe hadmilitar beenfoi orderedordenado bypola theXunta [[Greekmilitar militaryde juntaGrecia ofe 1967–1974|militarylevado Juntaa incabo Greece]] and staged by thepola [[CypriotGarda Nacional Nationalde GuardChipre]]<ref name=OperationNiki>{{citecita web|url= http://koti.welho.com/msolanak/kyprosengl.html |titletítulo= Operation "Niki" 1974: A suicide mission to Cyprus |accessdatedataacceso= 2009-06-10 de xuño de 2009 |authorautor= Solanakis, Mihail}}</ref><ref name=IntercommunalViolence>{{citecita web|url=http://countrystudies.us/cyprus/13.htm |titletítulo=U.S. Library of Congress – Country Studies – Cyprus – Intercommunal Violence |publishereditor=Countrystudies.us |datedata=1963-12-21 de decembro de 1963 |accessdatedataacceso=2009-07-26 de xullo de 2009}}</ref> inxunto conjunction withco [[EOKA-B]]. ItDepuxo deposedó thepresidente Cypriotchipriota, presidento Archbishoparcebispo [[Makarios III]] ande installedpuxo no poder a pro-[[EnosisNikos Sampson]], a prol da [[Nikos SampsonEnosis]].<ref>{{CiteCita booklibro| lastapelido = Mallinson | firstnome = William | authorlink = | titletítulo = Cyprus: A Modern History | publishereditor = I. B. Tauris | datedata = June 30, de xuño de 2005 | locationlocalización = | url = https://books.google.com/?id=HEjkuhF2GsMC&pg=PA81&dq= | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-1-85043-580-8| pagepáxina = 81 }}</ref><ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4644652.stm BBC: Turkey urges fresh Cyprus talks] (2006-01-24)</ref> TheO aimobxectivo ofdo thegolpe coupera wasa theanexión annexationda ofilla thea island by GreeceGrecia<ref>{{citecita publicación journalperiódica|last1apelido1=Papadakis|first1nome1=Yiannis|titletítulo=Nation, narrative and commemoration: political ritual in divided Cyprus|journalxornal=History and Anthropology|datedata=2003|volume=14|issue=3|pagespáxinas=253–270|doi=10.1080/0275720032000136642|url=http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0275720032000136642#.VQmrtNKUd8E|publisher=Routledge|quote="[...] culminating in the 1974 coup aimed at the annexation of Cyprus to Greece"}}</ref><ref>{{citecita booklibro|last1apelido1=Atkin|first1nome1=Nicholas|last2apelido2=Biddiss|first2nome2=Michael|last3apelido3=Tallett|first3nome3=Frank|titletítulo=The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789|isbn=9781444390728|pagepáxina=184|url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1QyXCTW_MCQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{citecita booklibro|titletítulo=Journal of international law and practice, Volume 5|datedata=1996|publishereditor=Detroit College of Law at Michigan State University|pagespáxinas=204}}</ref> ande thefoi Hellenicdeclarada Republica ofRepública CyprusHelénica wasde declaredChipre.<ref>''Strategic review, Volume 5'' (1977), United States Strategic Institute, [https://books.google.com/books?id=hCfcAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Hellenic+Republic+of+Cyprus%22&dq=%22Hellenic+Republic+of+Cyprus%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-L3VT_WBEMHKsgbL8rj3Ag&redir_esc=y p. 48].</ref><ref>Allcock, John B. ''Border and territorial disputes'' (1992), Longman Group, [https://books.google.com/books?id=6pztAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Hellenic+Republic+of+Cyprus%22&dq=%22Hellenic+Republic+of+Cyprus%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-L3VT_WBEMHKsgbL8rj3Ag&redir_esc=y p. 55].</ref>
 
En xullo de 1974, as forzas turcas invadiron a illa e capturaron o 3% da illa antes de que fose declarado o cesamento do fogo. A xunta militar grega colapsou e foi substituída por un goberno democrático. En agosto de 1974, a invasión turca supuxo a captuta de arredor do 40% da illa. A liña do cesamento do fogo a partir de agosto de 1974 converteuse na [[Liña Verde (Chipre)|Liña Verde]].
In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared. The Greek military junta collapsed and was replaced by a democratic government. In August 1974 further Turkish invasion resulted in the capture of approximately 40% of the island. The ceasefire line from August 1974 became the [[United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus]] and is commonly referred to as the Green Line.
 
MoreMáis thandunha onecuarta quarterparte ofda thepoboación populationde of CyprusChipre (one-thirdun ofterzo theda Greek Cypriotpoboación populationgregochipriota<ref name=pericleousdisp/>) wasfoi expelledexpulsada fromda theparte occupiedda northernilla, partonde ofos thegregochipriotas islandconstituían where [[Greek Cypriot]]s constitutedo 80% ofda the populationpoboación. APouco littlemáis overdun aano yeardespois, later inen 1975, roughlyarredor de 60,&nbsp;000 [[Turkish Cypriots]]turcochipriotas, amountinga tometade halfda thepoboación Turkishturcochipriota Cypriotda populationilla,<ref name=pericleousdisp>{{citecita booklibro|last1apelido1=Pericleous|first1nome1=Chrysostomos|titletítulo=Cyprus Referendum: A Divided Island and the Challenge of the Annan Plan|datedata=2009|publishereditor=I.B. Tauris|isbn=9780857711939|pagepáxina=201|url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PHQAAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA201&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> wereforon displaceddesprazados fromdende theo southsur tocara theo northnorte.<ref>"1974: Turkey Invades Cyprus" BBC 2010. Web. RetrievedConsultado: 2 Octoberde outubro de 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/20/newsid_3866000/3866521.stm></ref> TheA Turkishinvasión invasionturca endedrematou incoa thedivisión partitionde ofChipre Cyprusa alongpartir theda UN-monitoredLiña Verde das GreenNacións LineUnidas, whichque stillaínda dividesdivide CyprusChipre, ande thea formationformación ofdunha aAdministración Turcochipriota Autónoma ''[[de facto]]'' [[Autonomousno Turkish Cypriot Administration|autonomous Turkish Cypriot administration]] in the northnorte. InEn 1983, thea [[TurkishRepública RepublicTurca ofdo NorthernNorte Cyprusde Chipre]] (TRNC)declarou declareda independenceindependencia, althoughmalia Turkeyque isTurquía theé onlyo countryúnico thatpaís recognizesque a itrecoñece.<ref>{{citecita booklibro |lastapelido=Salin |firstnome=Ibrahm |titletítulo=Cyprus: Ethnic Political Components |locationlocalización= Oxford |publishereditor=University Press of America |yearano= 2004 |pagepáxina=29}}</ref> TheA internationalcomunidade communityinternacional considersconsidera thea TRNC'sRepública territoryTurca asdo [[MilitaryNorte occupation|Turkish-occupiedcomo territory]]un ofterritorio themilitarmente Republicocupado ofpor Turquía na CyprusRepública de Chipre.<ref name="Quigley">{{citecita booklibro|authorautor=Quigley|titletítulo=The Statehood of Palestine|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iTR3BQ0aJ6UC&pg=PA164|publishereditor=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-139-49124-2|page=164|quote=The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.}}</ref> TheA occupationocupación isestá viewedconsiderada ascomo illegalilegal underpola internationallei lawinternacional, amountingo tocal illegalé occupationequivalente ofa ocupación ilegal de territorio da [[EuropeanUnión UnionEuropea]] territorydende sinceque CyprusChipre se becameconverteu itsen membermembro.<ref name="Ker-LindsayFaustmann2011">{{citecita booklibro|author1autor1=James Ker-Lindsay|author2autor2=Hubert Faustmann|author3autor3=Fiona Mullen|titletítulo=An Island in Europe: The EU and the Transformation of Cyprus|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=R1QEn3G4L7MC&pg=PA15|datedata=15 Mayde maio de 2011|publishereditor=I.B.Tauris|isbn=978-1-84885-678-3|pagepáxina=15|quote=Classified as illegal under international law, the occupation of the northern part leads automatically to an illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus' accession.}}</ref>
 
TheO invasion'snome en clave da invasión das [[TurkishForzas ArmedArmadas Forcesde Turquía]] code name wasfoi '''OperationOperación AtillaAtila'''. AmongEntre Turkishos speakersturcofalantes thea operationoperación istamén alsoé referredcoñecida ascomo "CyprusOperación Peacede OperationPaz en Turquía" (en {{lang|tr|''Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı''}}) orou "OperationOperación Peacede Paz" (en {{lang|tr|''Barış Harekâtı''}}) orou "CyprusOperación Operationde Chipre" (en {{lang|tr|''Kıbrıs Harekâtı''}}), asxa Turkeyque tookTurquía militarytomou actionmedidas onmilitares theco pretextpretexto ofdunha aoperación de mantemento peacekeepingda operationpaz.<ref>{{citecita booklibro|last1apelido1=Mirbagheri|first1nome1=Farid|titletítulo=Historical dictionary of Cyprus|datedata=2010|publishereditor=Scarecrow Press|locationlocalización=Lanham, Md. [u.a.]|isbn=9780810862982|pagepáxina=83|editionedición=[Online-Ausg.].|url=https://books.google.gr/books?id=f82Jn_H4VukC&pg=PA83&dq=pretext+enosis+cyprus&hl=el&sa=X&ei=hsYWVdStNYz1apCQgagG&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=%22and%20invaded%20Cyprus%20on%20the%20pretext%20that%20the%20military%20incursion%20was%20a%20%E2%80%9Cpeacekeeping%20operation%E2%80%9D%20and%20in%20compliance%20with%20the%201960%20Treaty%20of%20%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
== Notas ==
309.943

edicións