Diferenzas entre revisións de «Nitrosamina»

 
== Distribución ==
NitrosaminesAs occurnitrosaminas inaparecen nos produtos feitos de [[latexlátex]] productscomo such as balloonsglobos,<ref>{{cite journal | pmid = 15672455 | year = 2005 | last1 = Altkofer | first1 = W | last2 = Braune | first2 = S | last3 = Ellendt | first3 = K | last4 = Kettl-Grömminger | first4 = M | last5 = Steiner | first5 = G | title = Migration of nitrosamines from rubber products--are balloons and condoms harmful to the human health? | volume = 49 | issue = 3 | pages = 235–8 | doi = 10.1002/mnfr.200400050 | journal = Molecular nutrition & food research}}</ref> ande inen manymoitos foodsalimentos ande otheroutros consumablesconsumibles. NitrosaminesAs fromnitrosaminas condomspresentes arenos not[[preservativo]]s expectednon tose beconsidera ofque [[Toxicology|toxicological]]supoñan un risco toxicolóxico significancesignificativo.<ref>{{cite journal | pmid = 11759152 | year = 2001 | last1 = Proksch | first1 = E | title = Toxicological evaluation of nitrosamines in condoms | volume = 204 | issue = 2–3 | pages = 103–10 | journal = International journal of hygiene and environmental health | doi=10.1078/1438-4639-00087}}</ref>
 
Nos alimentos, s nitrosaminas prodúcense a partir de [[nitrito]]s e [[amina]]s secundarias, que a miúdo están presentes en forma de [[proteína]]s. Poden formarse só en certas condicións, como en condicións fortemente ácidas como as do [[estómago]] humano. As altas temperaturas, como as que hai durante as frituras, poden tamén potenciar a formación de nitrosaminas. A presenza de nitrosaminas pode identificarse por medio da [[reacción do nitroso de Liebermann]]
In foods, nitrosamines are produced from [[nitrite]]s and secondary [[amine]]s, which often occur in the form of [[protein]]s. Their formation can occur only under certain conditions, including strongly [[acid]]ic conditions such as that of the human [[stomach]]. High temperatures, as in frying, can also enhance the formation of nitrosamines. The presence of nitrosamines may be identified by the [[Liebermann nitroso reaction]]
<ref>Vogel A I, ''Practical Organic Chemistry'', 3rd Ed. Impression 1962 p. 649</ref> (notque tonon bese confuseddebe withconfundir thecoa [[Liebermannreactivo de reagent|Liebermann's|reacción reactionde Liebermann]]).
 
UnderEn acidiccondicións conditionsácidas theo nitritenitrito formsorixina [[nitrousácido acidnitoso]] (HNO<sub>2</sub>), whichque isestá protonatedprotonado ande splitsescíndese intodando thelugar ao [[nitrosoniumcatión]] [[cationnitrosonio]] N≡O<sup>+</sup> ande waterauga: H<sub>2</sub>NO<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup> = H<sub>2</sub>O + NO<sup>+</sup>.
TheO nitrosoniumcatión cationnitrosonio thenreacciona reactsdespois withcoa anamina [[amine]]para toproducir produceunha nitrosaminenitrosamina.<ref>Vogel A I, ''Practical Organic Chemistry'', 3rd Ed. Impression 1962 p. 1074</ref>
 
TheseEstes processesprocesos leadfan toque significanthaxa levelsun ofnivel nitrosaminessigificativo inde manynitrosaminas foodstuffsen moitos alimentos, especiallyespecialmente [[beercervexa]], [[fishpeixe]], ande fishderivados byproductsdopeixe, ande alsotamén innos produtos ue conteñen [[meatcarne]] ande [[cheesequeixo]] productsque preservedforon withconservados nitritecon [[pickling]]sales de saltnitritos. TheAs U.S.lexislacións governmentdos establisheddistintos limitspaíses onestablecen theun amountlímite ofna nitritescantidade usedde innitritos meatpermitidos productsnos inprodutos ordercárnicos topara decreaseminimizar cancero riskrisco inde thecancro na populationpoboación.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Honikel|first=Karl-Otto|title=The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products|journal=Meat Science|date=January–February 2008|volume=78|pages=68–76|doi=10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.05.030|accessdate=8 March 2014}}</ref> ThereTamén arehai alsonormas rulessobre abouta addingadición de [[ascorbicácido acidascórbico]] orou relatedcompostos compoundsrelacionados toá meatcarne, asxa theque compoundsestecomposto inhibitinhibe formationa offormación de nitrosaminesnitrosaminas.<ref>http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w00/nitrosamine.html</ref>
 
As [[Tobacco-specificnitrosaminas específicas nitrosaminesdo tabaco]] canencóntranse alsono befume found indo [[tobaccotabaco]] smoke, Americanno [[Dippingtabaco tobacco|dip snuff]]mastigable, [[Chewinge Tobacco|chewingen tobacco]],moito andmenor tograo a much lesser degree,no [[snus]]. (127.9 [[Parts per million|PPM]] for American dip snuff compared to 2.8 PPM in Swedish snuff or snus.)<ref>{{Cite journal|author=Gregory N. Connolly, and Howard Saxner |title=Informational Update Research on Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs) in Oral Snuff and a Request to Tobacco Manufacturers to Voluntarily Set Tolerance Limits For TSNAs in Oral Snuff |date=August 21, 2001 | url=}}</ref>
 
NitrosaminesAs cannitrosaminas alsoencóntranse betamén foundno invapor dos [[E-cigarettecigarros electrónicos]] vapour, thoughaínda thisque is reporteden tocantidades betraza, traceposiblemente amounts,formadas a partir do possiblypropilén fromglicol theou propyleneda glycolglicerina and/orvexetal vegetableusada glycerinedurante useda insúa manufacturefabricación.<ref>{{cite web|title=E-cigarettes: harmless inhaled or exhaled, No second hand smoke|url=http://www.healthnz.co.nz/ECigsExhaledSmoke.htm|website=Health New Zealand|accessdate=27 June 2014}}</ref>
 
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