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== Expresión e función da citoglobina ==
 
A citoglobina atópase no [[citoplasma]] da maior parte dos tipos celulares, pero a súa taxa de produción revelada pola técnica de [[northern blot]] difire dun tecido a outro. Esta distribución da [[expresión xénica|expresión]] non concorda con que a súa función sexa exclusivamente respiratoria. De feito, segundo outros estudos, a citoglobina sintetízase preerentemente nas células do [[tecido conxuntivo]] ([[fibroblasto]]s) e células de sostén ([[condrocito]]s e [[osteoblasto]]s), o que apoia a hipótese de que está implicada na síntese do [[coláxeno]]. É posible que a citoglobina forneza oxíxeno á [[prolil-4-hidroxilase]] ({{EC number|1.14.11.2}}), un ferroencima clave que cataliza a [[hidroxilación]] dos residuos de [[prolina]] da molécula de [[procoláxeno]].<ref>Kivirikko K. I., and Myllyharju J., (1998). Prolyl 4-hydroxylases and their protein disulfide isomerase subunit. ''Matrix Biol.'' 16; 357-368.</ref>
 
En condicións de [[hipoxia]], duplícase a síntese de citoglobina na maioría dos tecidos, e aínda aumenta máis no corazón e fígado.<ref>Marc Schmidt, Frank Gerlach, Aaron Avivi, Thorsten Burmester et al., (2004). Cytoglobin Is a Respiratory Protein in Connective Tissue and Neurons, Which Is Up-regulated by Hypoxia. ''J. Biol. Chem.'' 279(9); 8063-8069. [http://www.jbc.org/content/279/9/8063.full]</ref> Este mecanismo pode explicarse polo feito de que a citoglobina seve para almacenar e facilitar o transporte de oxíxeno cara á [[cadea respiratoria]] [[mitocondria]]l.<ref>Sawai H., Kawada N., Yoshizato K., Nakajima H., Aono S., Shiro Y., (2003). Characterization of the heme environmental structure of cytoglobin, a fourth globin in humans. ''Biochemistry'' 42(17); 5133-42. PMID 12718557.</ref>
A presenza de citoglobina nas [[neurona]]s formula varias cuestións sobre as súas funcións no [[sistema nervioso central]], xa que este tecido posúe a súa propia globina específica, a [[neuroglobina]]. Considérase que pode ter un papel potencial como doante de O<small>2</small> para certas reaccións encimáticas, entre outras a síntese do [[óxido nítrico|NO]] a partir de [[arxinina]] polas [[NO sintase]]s<ref>Leone A. M., Palmer R. M., Knowles R. G., Francis P. L., Ashton D. S., and Moncada S., (1991). Constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases incorporate molecular oxygen into both nitric oxide and citrulline. ''J. Biol. Chem.'' 266; 23790-23795. [http://www.jbc.org/content/266/35/23790.abstract]</ref>.
 
As funcións que se cre pode realizar a citoglobina son: facilitar a difusión do oxíxeno nos tecidos, recoller o [[óxido nítrico]] ou as [[especies reactivas do oxíxeno]], ou realizar unha función protectora durante o [[estrés oxidativo]]. <ref>{{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Trent JT, Hargrove MS |title=A ubiquitously expressed human hexacoordinate hemoglobin. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 22 |pages= 19538–45 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11893755 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M201934200 }}</ref>.
 
== Notas ==
{{Listaref}}
 
== Véxase tamén ==
=== Outros artigos ===
* [[Globina]].
* [[Neuroglobina]]
* [[Hemoglobina]]
 
=== Ligazóns externas ===
* [http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore.do?structureId=2DC3/ Crystal structure of human cytoglobin at 1.68 angstroms resolution] : Estrutura 3D e modelo interactivo (java) da citoglobina en [[Protein Data Bank]] (RCSB PDB).
* [http://www.expasy.org/uniprot/Q8WWM9/ Q8WWM9 Human cytoglobin gene (Swiss-Prot)] : Secuencia completa e outras informacións sobre o xene humano da citoglobina (CYGB) de [[Swiss-Prot]].
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed/ Pubmed]: Actualidade biolóxica e médica sobre a citoglobina.
 
=== Outras lecturas ===
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Kawada N, Kristensen DB, Asahina K, ''et al.'' |title=Characterization of a stellate cell activation-associated protein (STAP) with peroxidase activity found in rat hepatic stellate cells. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 27 |pages= 25318–23 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11320098 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M102630200 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Burmester T, Ebner B, Weich B, Hankeln T |title=Cytoglobin: a novel globin type ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate tissues. |journal=Mol. Biol. Evol. |volume=19 |issue= 4 |pages= 416–21 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11919282 |doi= }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Asahina K, Kawada N, Kristensen DB, ''et al.'' |title=Characterization of human stellate cell activation-associated protein and its expression in human liver. |journal=Biochim. Biophys. Acta |volume=1577 |issue= 3 |pages= 471–5 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12359339 |doi= }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, ''et al.'' |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899 | pmc=139241 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Sawai H, Kawada N, Yoshizato K, ''et al.'' |title=Characterization of the heme environmental structure of cytoglobin, a fourth globin in humans |journal=Biochemistry |volume=42 |issue= 17 |pages= 5133–42 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12718557 |doi= 10.1021/bi027067e }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Geuens E, Brouns I, Flamez D, ''et al.'' |title=A globin in the nucleus! |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 33 |pages= 30417–20 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12796507 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.C300203200 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Hamdane D, Kiger L, Dewilde S, ''et al.'' |title=The redox state of the cell regulates the ligand binding affinity of human neuroglobin and cytoglobin |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 51 |pages= 51713–21 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14530264 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M309396200 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Schmidt M, Gerlach F, Avivi A, ''et al.'' |title=Cytoglobin is a respiratory protein in connective tissue and neurons, which is up-regulated by hypoxia |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=279 |issue= 9 |pages= 8063–9 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14660570 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M310540200 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, ''et al.'' |title=Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs |journal=Nat. Genet. |volume=36 |issue= 1 |pages= 40–5 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14702039 |doi= 10.1038/ng1285 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Hünermund G, Schirmacher A, Ringelstein B, ''et al.'' |title=Genomic organization and mutation analysis of three candidate genes for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy |journal=Muscle Nerve |volume=29 |issue= 4 |pages= 601–4 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15052627 |doi= 10.1002/mus.20009 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=de Sanctis D, Dewilde S, Pesce A, ''et al.'' |title=Crystal structure of cytoglobin: the fourth globin type discovered in man displays heme hexa-coordination |journal=J. Mol. Biol. |volume=336 |issue= 4 |pages= 917–27 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15095869 |doi=10.1016/j.jmb.2003.12.063 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Sugimoto H, Makino M, Sawai H, ''et al.'' |title=Structural basis of human cytoglobin for ligand binding |journal=J. Mol. Biol. |volume=339 |issue= 4 |pages= 873–85 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15165856 |doi= 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.04.024 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Fago A, Hundahl C, Dewilde S, ''et al.'' |title=Allosteric regulation and temperature dependence of oxygen binding in human neuroglobin and cytoglobin. Molecular mechanisms and physiological significance |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=279 |issue= 43 |pages= 44417–26 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15299006 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M407126200 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, ''et al.'' |title=The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) |journal=Genome Res. |volume=14 |issue= 10B |pages= 2121–7 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15489334 |doi= 10.1101/gr.2596504 | pmc=528928 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Hamdane D, Kiger L, Dewilde S, ''et al.'' |title=Hyperthermal stability of neuroglobin and cytoglobin |journal=FEBS J. |volume=272 |issue= 8 |pages= 2076–84 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15819897 |doi= 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04635.x }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Sawai H, Makino M, Mizutani Y, ''et al.'' |title=Structural characterization of the proximal and distal histidine environment of cytoglobin and neuroglobin |journal=Biochemistry |volume=44 |issue= 40 |pages= 13257–65 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16201751 |doi= 10.1021/bi050997o }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Shaw RJ, Liloglou T, Rogers SN, ''et al.'' |title=Promoter methylation of P16, RARβ, E-cadherin, cyclin A1 and cytoglobin in oral cancer: quantitative evaluation using pyrosequencing |journal=Br. J. Cancer |volume=94 |issue= 4 |pages= 561–8 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16449996 |doi= 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602972 | pmc=2361183 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=McRonald FE, Liloglou T, Xinarianos G, ''et al.'' |title=Down-regulation of the cytoglobin gene, located on 17q25, in tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC): evidence for trans-allele repression |journal=Hum. Mol. Genet. |volume=15 |issue= 8 |pages= 1271–7 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16510494 |doi= 10.1093/hmg/ddl042 }}
* {{citeCita journalpublicación periódica | author=Xinarianos G, McRonald FE, Risk JM, ''et al.'' |title=Frequent genetic and epigenetic abnormalities contribute to the deregulation of cytoglobin in non-small cell lung cancer |journal=Hum. Mol. Genet. |volume=15 |issue= 13 |pages= 2038–44 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16698880 |doi= 10.1093/hmg/ddl128 }}
 
 
[[Categoría:Hemoproteínas]]
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