Diferenzas entre revisións de «Luteína»

 
==En nutrición==
LuteinA isluteína aé naturalunha partparte ofnatural humanda dietdieta whenhumana fruitsao andconsumírense vegetablesfroitas aree consumedverduras. ForPara individualsos lackingindividuos sufficientque luteinteñen intake,un lutein-fortifiedconsumo foodsinsuficiente arede availableluteína, orhai inalimentos thefortificados casecon ofluteína elderlye peoplesuplementos with a poorly absorbing digestive system, a [[sublingual]] spray is availabledietéticos. AsActualmente earlynon ashai 1996, lutein has been incorporated into dietary supplements. While noun [[recommendedconsumo dailydiario allowancerecomendado]] currentlypara exists for lutein as for othera nutrientsluteína, positivepero effectsobserváronse haveefectos beenpositivos seencon atconsumos dietary intake levels ofde 6–10&nbsp;mg/daydía.<ref name="Seddon1994">{{cite journal |author=Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. |title=Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group |journal=JAMA |volume=272 |issue=18 |pages=1413–20 |date=November 1994 |pmid=7933422 |doi=10.1001/jama.272.18.1413 }}</ref> TheO único onlyefecto definitivesecundario sideclaramente effectobservado ofdo excessexceso luteinde consumptionluteína isé bronzingo ofbronceamento theda skinpel ([[carotenodermia]]).
 
TheA functionaldiferencia differencefuncional betweenentre luteina luteína (freeforma formlibre) ande luteinos esters[[éster]]es isda notluteína entirelynon known.se Itcoñece isben. suggestedSuxírese thatque thea [[bioavailabilitybiodispoñibilidade]] isé lowermáis forbaixa luteinpara estersos ésteres da luteína, butpero mucho debate continuesaínda continúa.<ref name="pmid12468605">{{cite journal |author=Bowen PE, Herbst-Espinosa SM, Hussain EA, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M |title=Esterification does not impair lutein bioavailability in humans |journal=J Nutr |volume=132 |issue=12 |pages=3668–73 |year=2002 |pmid=12468605}}</ref>
 
As aComo [[foodaditivo additivealimentario]], luteina hasluteína theten o [[número E number]] E161b (INSe numberextráese 161b)dos andpétalos isda extractedplanta from the petals of marigold[[asterácea]] (''[[Tagetes erecta]]'').<ref name="Ref_d">[http://www.codexalimentarius.net/gsfaonline/additives/details.html?id=384 WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Food Additives]</ref> ItO isseu approveduso forestá useaprobado inna the[[Unión EUEuropea]].<ref>UK Food Standards Agency: {{cite web |url=http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/additivesbranch/enumberlist |title=Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers |accessdate=2011-10-27}}</ref> and Australia and New Zealand<ref>Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code{{cite web |url=http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2011C00827 |title=Standard 1.2.4 - Labelling of ingredients |accessdate=2011-10-27}}</ref> but is banned in the USA.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}
 
SomeAlgúns foodsalimentos areconsidéranse consideredboas goodfontes sourcesdeste of the nutrientscomposto:<ref name="PMID17846363">{{cite journal |author=SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, et al. |title=The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E, and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No. 22 |journal=Arch. Ophthalmol. |volume=125 |issue=9 |pages=1225–32 |date=September 2007 |pmid=17846363 |doi=10.1001/archopht.125.9.1225 |url=http://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17846363}}</ref><ref name="Ref_e">[http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/10/us-eyesight-nutrients-idUSN0746200620070910 Reuters, Study finds spinach, eggs ward off cause of blindness]</ref><ref name="Ref_USDA">[http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23 (2010)]</ref><ref name="nasturtium">{{Cite journal | doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb08336.x
| issn = 1750-3841
| volume = 70
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! ProductProduto
! Luteína/zeaxantina (microgramos por 100 gramos)
! Lutein/zeaxanthin (micrograms per hundred grams)
|-
| ''[[Tropaeolum|nasturtium]]'' (yellowflores flowersamarelas, lutein levels onlyluteína)
| 45,000
|-
| [[kalecol rizada]] (rawcrúa)
| 39,550
|-
| [[kalecol rizada]] (cookedcociñada)
| 18,246
|-
| ''[[dandelionTaraxacum]] leaves'' (rawfollas, crúas)
| 13,610
|-
| ''[[Tropaeolum|nasturtium]]'' (leavesfollas, lutein levels onlyluteína)
| 13,600
|-
| [[nabo]] (follas, crúas)
| [[turnip]] [[leaf vegetables|greens]] (raw)
| 12,825
|-
| [[spinachespinaca]] (rawcrúa)
| 12,198
|-
| [[spinachespinaca]] (cookedcociñada)
| 11,308
|-
| [[swiss chardacelga]] (rawcrúa orou cookedcociñada)
| 11,000
|-
| [[nabo]] (follas, cociñadas)
| [[turnip]] [[leaf vegetables|greens]] (cooked)
| 8440
|-
| [[collard greensverza]] (cookedcociñada)
| 7694
|-
| [[watercressagrón (planta)|agrón]] (rawcrúa)
| 5767
|-
| garden [[peaschícharo]] (rawcrú)
| 2593
|-
| [[romaineleituga lettuceromana]]
| 2312
|-
| [[zucchinicabaciña]]
| 2125
|-
| [[brusselscol sproutsde Bruxelas]]
| 1590
|-
| [[pistachiopistacho]] nuts(noces)
| 1205
|-
| [[broccolibrócoli]]
| 1121
|-
| [[carrotcenoria]] (cookedcciñada)
| 687
|-
| [[maize|Maize/cornmillo]]
| 642
|-
| [[eggovo (foodalimento)|eggovos]] (hardduros boiledcocidos)
| 353
|-
| [[avocadoaugacate]] (rawcru)
| 271
|-
| [[carrotcenoria]] (rawcrúa)
| 256
|-
| [[kiwifruitkiwi (froita)|kiwi]]
| 122
|}
185.438

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