Abrir o menú principal

Cambios

Malia ser reducidos en número, os maronitas continúan a ser un dos principais grupos etno-relixiosos do Líbano. A diferenza doutras [[igrexas católicas orientais]], dende a súa orixe os maronitas sempre teñen estado en comuñón coa [[Santa Sé|Igrexa de Roma]] e co [[Papa]].
 
==HistoryHistoria==
A Igrexa Maronita toma o seu nome do seu fundador, [[san Marón]] († 410), un asceta siríaco amigo de [[Xoán Crisóstomo]] que a instituiu no [[século IV]]. Dopo la sua morte, nel [[452]] i suoi discepoli costituirono un [[monastero]] nei pressi del suo sepolcro, ad Apamea, sulle rive del fiume [[Oronte]]. Fin dalle origini la comunità maronita seguì il Patriarca di Antiochia. Quando la regione divenne a maggioranza [[monofisismo|monofisita]] (V-VI secolo), la comunità dovette trasferirsi in una regione più interna del Libano.
{{Eastern Catholicism}}
<!-- Commented out: [[File:Saint Maron.JPG|thumb|left|150px|[[Maron]] (died sometime between 406 and 423 AD), founder of the Maronite spiritual movement. Since the 17th century, his feast day has been celebrated on February 9. Statue, [[St. Peter's Basilica]], [[Rome]].]] -->
 
Nel [[VII secolo]] la comunità maronita fu rifondata e organizzata da un santo monaco, l'abate del monastero di Brad, in [[Siria]]. Giovanni Marone fu il primo maronita a ricoprire la dignità episcopale; l’ordinazione avvenne nel [[676]] e in seguito - nel [[685]] - fu eletto [[Patriarca di Antiochia]]. Fu il primo maronita a ricoprire questo incarico. Per sfuggire a una persecuzione, decise di lasciare la Siria e dirigersi verso il Libano. Si stabilì a [[Bkerké|Kfarhy]], dove fece costruire un nuovo monastero nel quale depositò la [[reliquia]] più preziosa per i maroniti: il cranio di san Marone. Da esso deriva il nome del monastero: ''Monastero di Ras Marun'' (cranio di Marone). Da quell'epoca il monastero è la [[Patriarcato di Antiochia dei Maroniti|sede patriarcale maronita]].
The followers of [[Jesus Christ]] first became known as "Christians" in [[Antioch]] (Acts 11:26), and the city became a center for Christianity - especially after the [[Siege of Jerusalem (70)|destruction of Jerusalem]] in 70 AD. According to Catholic tradition, the first Bishop was [[Saint Peter]] before his travels to Rome. The third Bishop was the [[Apostolic Father]] [[Ignatius of Antioch]]. Antioch became one of the five original [[Patriarchate]]s (the [[Pentarchy]]) after [[Constantine I (emperor)|Constantine]] recognized Christianity.
[[File:AleppoMaroniteCathedral.jpg|thumb|La cattedrale maronita di [[Aleppo]].]]
[[File:HarissaVirginOfLebanon.jpg|thumb|Statua del santuario di [[Nostra Signora del Libano]] a [[Harissa]] presso [[Jounieh]].]]
 
Dopo il [[685]] la Chiesa di Antiochia si divise tra calcedonesi e non calcedonesi, che divennero la maggioranza. La comunità maronita scelse di rimanere calcedonese e non si riconobbe più nel patriarca Teofane. Iniziò un periodo di autonomia: i monasteri diventarono sedi vescovili.
[[Maron]], a fourth-century [[monk]] and the contemporary and friend of [[St. John Chrysostom]], left Antioch for the [[Orontes River]] to lead an [[ascetic]] life, following the traditions of [[Anthony the Great]] of the Desert and [[Pachomius]]. Many of his followers also lived a monastic lifestyle. Following the death of Maron in 410 AD, his disciples built a monastery in his memory and formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church.
 
All'epoca delle [[Crociate]] la Chiesa maronita riallacciò i rapporti con la [[Chiesa latina|Chiesa di Roma]], da cui non si era mai formalmente separata. L'unione venne suggellata alcuni secoli dopo, nel [[1584]], con la fondazione, durante il pontificato di [[Gregorio XIII]], del Collegio maroniano di Roma.
The [[Maronites]] held fast to the beliefs of the [[Council of Chalcedon]] in 451 AD. When the [[Monophysites]] of Antioch slew 350 monks, the Maronites sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon. Correspondence concerning the event brought the Maronites papal and orthodox recognition, which was solidified by [[Pope Hormisdas]] (514-523 AD) on February 10, AD 518. A monastery was built around the shrine of St. Maro (Marun) after the [[Council of Chalcedon]].<ref>Attwater, Donald; The Christian Churches of the East</ref>
 
I maroniti furono protetti anche dalla [[Francia]], durante il dominio [[Impero ottomano|ottomano]] del [[Vicino oriente]].
The martyrdom of the Patriarch of Antioch in the first decade of the seventh century, either at the hands of Persian soldiers or local Jews,<ref>[http://www.jstor.org/stable/1454219 J. D. Frendo, "Who killed Anastasius II?" ''Jewish Quarterly Review'' vol. 72 (1982), 202-4])</ref> left the Maronites without a leader, a situation which continued because of the final and most devastating [[Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628]]. In the aftermath of the war, the Emperor [[Heraclius]] propagated a new Christological doctrine in an attempt to unify the various Christian churches of the east, who were divided over accepting the [[Council of Chalcedon]]. This doctrine, [[monothelitism]], was meant as a compromise between supporters of Chalcedon, such as the Maronites, and opponents, such as the [[Syriac Orthodox Church|Jacobites]]. Instead, this new doctrine caused greater controversy, and was declared a heresy at the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] in 680-681. Contemporary Greek and Arab sources, however, claimed that the Maronites accepted monothelitism,{{fact|date=January 2014}} rejected the sixth council, and continued to maintain a belief in the largely discredited monothelete doctrine for centuries, only moving away from monothelitism in the time of the crusades in order to avoid being branded heretics by the crusaders. The modern Maronite Church, however, rejects the assertion that the Maronites were ever monothelites; and the question remains a major controversy to this day.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=8Ogp94y8CJgC&dq=The+Maronites+in+History&source=gbs_navlinks_s Matti Moosa, The Maronites in History (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 195-216].</ref>
 
Fino al [[XVIII secolo]] il patriarcato maronita era solo formalmente suddiviso in [[eparchia|eparchie]]: di fatto i vescovi erano tutti considerati come [[Vescovo ausiliare|ausiliari]] del patriarca, l'unica vera guida della nazione maronita. In più occasioni [[Propaganda Fide]] era intervenuta per ordinare la suddivisione canonica del patriarcato, ma i suoi decreti erano rimasti lettera morta. Il [[sinodo]] del Monte Libano del [[1736]] istituì canonicamente le eparchie in numero di 8, oltre la sede patriarcale, definendone per ciascuna le giurisdizioni territoriali: [[Arcieparchia di Aleppo dei Maroniti|Aleppo]], [[Arcieparchia di Beirut dei Maroniti|Beirut]], [[Eparchia di Jbeil|Jbeil]] (''Byblos'') unita a [[Eparchia di Batrun|Batrun]] (''Botrys''), [[Arcieparchia di Cipro|Cipro]], [[Arcieparchia di Damasco dei Maroniti|Damasco]], [[Eparchia di Baalbek-Deir El-Ahmar|Baalbek]] (''Heliopolis''), [[Arcieparchia di Tripoli dei Maroniti|Tripoli]] e [[Arcieparchia di Tiro dei Maroniti|Tiro]]-[[Eparchia di Sidone|Sidone]]. La [[Santa Sede]] approvò le decisioni del sinodo con la [[bolla pontificia|bolla]] ''Apostolica praedecessorum'' di [[papa Benedetto XIV]] del 14 febbraio [[1742]]. Questa suddivisione è rimasta fino agli inizi del [[XX secolo]], quando fu creato il vicariato patriarcale d'Egitto ([[1904]]; oggi [[eparchia del Cairo dei Maroniti|eparchia del Cairo]]) e furono distinte le sedi di Tiro e di Sidone ([[1906]]).
In 687 AD, the Emperor [[Justinian II]] agreed to evacuate many thousand Maronites from Lebanon and settle them elsewhere. The chaos and utter depression which followed led the Maronites to elect their first Patriarch, [[John Maroun]], that year. This, however, was seen as a usurpation by the Orthodox churches. Thus, at a time when Islam was rising on the borders of the [[Byzantine Empire]] and a united front was necessary to keep out Islamic infiltration, the [[Maronites]] were focused on a struggle to retain their independence against imperial power. This situation was mirrored in other Christian communities in the Byzantine Empire and helped facilitate the Muslim conquest of most of Eastern [[Christendom]] by the end of the century.
 
Quando il Libano ottenne l'indipendenza, nel [[1943]], i poteri del nuovo stato furono ripartiti fra le principali comunità religiose. I maroniti, che costituivano la maggioranza relativa della popolazione, ebbero la presidenza della repubblica, carica che hanno continuato a detenere fino ad oggi.
===Muslim rule===
After they came under Arab rule following the [[Muslim conquest of Syria]], the Maronites experienced an improvement in their relationship with the Byzantine Empire. The imperial court, seeing its earlier mistake, saw an advantage in the situation. Thus, Byzantine Emperor [[Constantine IV]] provided direct ecclesiastical, political, and military support to the Maronites. The new alliance soon coordinated devastating raids on Muslim forces, providing a welcome relief to besieged Christians throughout the Middle East. Some of the Maronites relocated to [[Mount Lebanon]] at this time and formed several communities that became known as the Marada. That is the view of 17th century Patriarch [[Estephan El Douaihy]] (also known as Stephane Al Doueihi Arabic: أسطفان الدويهي, "The Father of Maronite History" and the "Pillar of the Maronite Church").
 
Another view, that of Ibn al-Qilaii, a Maronite scholar from the 16th century, proposes that Maronites fled Muslim persecutions of the [[Umayyads]] in the late 9th century AD.
 
The most widely accepted theory postulates that the Maronites fled [[West Syrian Rite|Jacobite]] [[monophysite]] persecution, because of [[Monothelite]] heresy as advanced by Sergius of Tyr, a scholar of the 10th century AD. It is most probable, because nearly all the denominations became Monothelite after it was introduced by [[Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople]]. The Maronite migration to the mountains took place over a long period, but its peak must have been during the 7th century.
 
Around AD 1017, a new Muslim sect, the [[Druze]], emerged. At that time, the Maronites, as [[Dhimmi#Legal and social status|dhimmis]], were required to wear black robes and black turbans, so as to be easily identified; they were also forbidden to ride horses.
[[File:MontLiban-Maronitemonkandpilgrims.jpg|thumb|left|Maronite monk and [[pilgrims]], [[Mount Lebanon]].]]
 
Following the Muslim conquest of Eastern Christendom outside [[Anatolia]] and Europe and after the establishment of secured lines of control between Islamic [[Caliphs]] and Byzantine Emperors, little was heard from the Maronites for 400 years. Secure in their mountain strongholds, the Maronites were re-discovered in the mountains near [[Tripoli, Lebanon]] only by crusader [[Raymond IV of Toulouse|Raymond of Toulouse]] on his way to conquer Jerusalem in the [[First Crusade|Great Crusade]]. Raymond later returned to [[Siege of Tripoli|besiege Tripoli]] after his conquest of Jerusalem, and relations between the Maronites and European Christianity were re-established.
 
===Crusades===
Late in the 11th century the crusaders made their way to the lands of the [[Levant]] to overthrow Islamic rule; on their way, they passed through mount Lebanon, where they came across the Maronites. The [[Maronites]] had been largely cut off from the rest of the Christian world for around 400 years. The Church in Rome had been unaware that the Maronites still existed. The crusaders and Maronites established ties and from this point provided each other mutual assistance.
 
During the [[Crusades]] in the 12th century AD, Maronites assisted the crusaders and affirmed their affiliation with the Holy See in 1182 AD. Consequently, from this point onwards, the Maronites have upheld an unbroken ecclesiastical orthodoxy and unity with the Catholic Church. To commemorate their communion, Maronite Patriarch [[Youseff Al Jirjisi]] received the crown and staff marking his patriarchal authority, from [[Pope Paschal II]] in 1100 AD. In 1131, Maronite Patriarch [[Gregorios Al-Halati]] received letters from Pope [[Innocent II]] in which the Papacy recognized the authority of the Patriarchate.
 
For a long time Maronites had been effectively isolated from Christians of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe. As a result, they appointed their own [[List of Maronite Patriarchs|Patriarch]], starting with John Maron, who had been a bishop of [[Batroun]], Mount Lebanon. Through him, the Maronites of today claim full [[apostolic succession]] through the [[episcopal see|See]] of Antioch. Nonetheless, controversy surrounds this claim as some Maronites had been accused of having fully adopted the [[Monothelite]] heresy; this led to a number of civil wars (e.g. 1282 and 1499 AD).
 
===Ottoman rule===
Following the defeat of the [[Mamelukes]] by the [[Ottoman Empire]], and to reward their new [[Druze]] ally who fought with them in the battle of Marj Dabek (1516), the Ottomans rewarded Prince [[Fakher el Din al Maani I]], with the Principality of Lebanon, where he established a Druze-Maronite alliance lasting for hundreds of years; this prosperous principality became the base of the modern Lebanese Republic.
 
The Maronites were partners in governing the new principality; often the post of Moudabbir (roughly Prime Minister) and the post of Army Commander were given to a Maronite, usually a [[Khazen]] or a Hobeich of Keserwan. During this period (1516-1840), the Maronites started returning to southern Mount Lebanon, where they had lived before they were almost exterminated by the Mamelukes in 1307. Thus, the historic [[Keserwan District|Keserwan]] and all the Druze mountains were repopulated. It was this love and affection between the Maronites and Druze that helped establish the Lebanese identity.
 
On July 15, 1584, a Maronite college was established in Rome; Pope Gregory hosted the grand opening.
 
[[Fakhr-al-din II]], who was said to have been brought up by a Maronite el Khazen family, fought for Lebanese independence for over 50 years. In the mid-16th century, 25,000 Ottoman troops launched an attack on Lebanon. During the ensuing battles, Fakhr and three of his sons were captured; they were subsequently executed in Istanbul on April 13, 1635.
 
In 1638, France declared it would protect all Catholics within the Ottoman Empire, including the Maronites.
 
In the 17th century AD, Western religious groups started settling in Lebanon. The migration began in 1626 with the Capuchins, followed by the Jesuits. The groups moved at this time to serve the Lebanese, opening schools for the Maronite people until there was a school next to each church. This made it possible for the Maronites to acquire formal educations. The Maronites were on the forefront of the cultural Renaissance in the Middle East.
 
[[File:NunofLebanon.jpg|thumb|right|Maronite nun from Mount Lebanon, painting from 1779.]]
However, connection to Rome was arduously maintained; and through diplomacy and maneuvering, European powers helped keep the Maronite community from destruction. Eventually, a [[Maronite College]] was established at Rome on July 5, 1584. This college provided the Maronite community valuable assistance in maintaining its Christian identity. In 1610, the Maronite monks of the Monastery of [[Anthony the Great|Saint Anthony]] of [[Qozhaya]] imported one of the first printing presses in what is known as the Arabic-speaking world; however, that press printed in the Syriac language, not Arabic. The monasteries of Lebanon would later become key players in the [[Arabic Renaissance]] of the late 19th century as a result of developing Arabic, as well as Syriac, printable script.
 
In 1856 the Maronites' uprising against Governor (Dawood Pasha) took place. [[Youssef Karam]] was the son of Sheikh Boutros Karam, who was at that time Lord of [[Ehden]] and the surrounding district.
 
===French rule===
{{main|French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon}}
 
===Independent Lebanon===
{{main|Christianity in Lebanon}}
 
===Latinización===
Ao longo da historia da Igrexa Maronita, e a partir do [[Concilio de Trento]], comezou unha latinización litúrxica e teolóxica. O Sínodo Maronita comezou a adoptar prácticas e costumes da [[Igrexa Latina]]. O punto álxido deste período chegou no Sínodo do Monte Líbano de 1736, cando algunhas prácticas latinas consagráronse como exclusivas na liturxia e na teoloxía. Algúns dos exemplos disto foron a sustitución das [[Palabras de Consagración]] de cada Anáfora pola versión tridentina estandarizada e o uso obrigatorio das fórmulas latinas no bautismo.
 
Algunhas destas latinizacións persisten hoxe, malia a insistencia dos papas dende [[León XIII]] en que a Igrexa desistira delas e retornara ao seu antigo patrimonio.<ref>[http://www.lmschairman.org/2013/11/the-traditional-mass-and-christian-east_8.html The Traditional Mass and the Christian East]</ref>
 
==Organization==
67.952

edicións