===Hipoglicemia inducida por etanol===
Ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, and further into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. During this reaction 2 NADH are produced. If large amounts of ethanol are present, then large amounts of NADH are produced, leading to a depletion of NAD<sup>+</sup>. Thus, the conversion of pyruvate to lactate is increased due to the associated regeneration of NAD<sup>+</sup>. Therefore, anion-gap metabolic acidosis (lactic acidosis) may ensue in ethanol poisoning.
The increased NADH/NAD+ ratio also can cause hypoglycemia in an (otherwise) fasting individual who has been drinking and is dependent on gluconeogenesis to maintain blood glucose levels. Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium to lactate, so that less pyruvate can be formed and, therefore, gluconeogenesis is impaired.
== Isoencimas ==