Diferenzas entre revisións de «Alexandre I de Bulgaria»

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O príncipe Alexandre recibiu unha educación militar, serviu como oficial no rexemento de [[dragón (exército)|dragóns]] de Hesse, e moi ligado ao seu tío o tsar de Rusia na súa infancia e mocidade Alexandre visitou frecuentemente [[San Petersburgo]], e cando a [[Guerra ruso-turca de 1877-78]] estalou ingresou no exército ruso<ref>Duncan M. Perry ''Stefan Stambolov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895''. Duke University Press (1993), p. 243</ref> participando na campaña búlgara de 1877. Cando, so o [[Tratado de Berlín, 1878|Tratado de Berlín]] (1878), Bulgaria mudou nun [[principado]] baixo soberanía [[Imperio Otomán|otomá]], o tsar recomendoulle o seu sobriño aos búlgaros como o candidato ideal ao trono, e a [[Asemblea Nacional de Bulgaria|Grande Asemblea Nacional]] por unanimidade elixiu a Aexandre Battenberg como príncipe de Bulgaria o 29 de abril de 1879. Nese intre, Alexandre, servía como tenente na [[Gardes du Corps|Garda Real de Prusia]] en [[Postdam]]. Antes de marchar para Bulgaria visitou ao tsar no [[Palacio de Livadia]] ([[Crimea]]), un navío de guerra levou a [[Varna]], e logo de prestar [[xuramento]] á [[Constitución de Tarnovo|nova constitución]] en [[Veliko Tarnovo|Tarnovo]] o 8 de xullo de 1879 dirixiuse a [[Sofía]].
 
O novo príncipe carecía de calquera tipo de experiencia de goberno e viuse entre os representantes oficiais de Rusia, que pretendían que fora un ''[[roi fainéant]]'' e as friccións co primeiro ministro liberal, [[Dragan Tsankov]], sobre asuntos constitucionais e de política interna<ref>R.J. Crampton ''A Concise History of Bulgaria''. Cambridge Univestity Press (2005) p. 90</ref>. En novembro de 1880 [[Petko Karavelov]] substituíu a Tsankov e tras a morte do tsar e a suba ao trono de [[Alexandre III de Rusia|Alexandre III]], dun cariz reaccionario e que lle deu o seu total apoio <ref> Rumen Daskalov ''Debating the Past: Modern Bulgarian History: From Stambolov to Zhivkov''. Central European University Press (2011) p. 57</ref>, o príncipe búlgaro suspendeu a constitución o 9 de maio de 1881. (9Unha Mayasemblea especial votou o 13 de xullo de 1881). Aesa speciallysuspensión convenedpor assemblyun votedperíodo de sete anos. (13 July 1881) for suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years. The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the monarchical coup infuriated Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians, and the real [[power (sociology)|power]] passed to two Russian generals, [[Leonid Sobolev|Sobolev]] and [[Aleksandr Kaulbars|Kaulbars]], specially despatched from Saint Petersburg. The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (19 September 1883). A serious breach with [[Russia]] followed, and the part which the prince subsequently played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians widened that breach.
 
The revolution of [[Plovdiv]] (18 September 1885), which brought about the union of [[Eastern Rumelia]] with Bulgaria, took place with Alexander's consent, and he at once assumed the government of the province. In the year which followed, the prince gave evidence of considerable military and diplomatic ability. He rallied the Bulgarian [[army]], now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the [[Serbia]]n invasion, and after a victory at [[Battle of Slivnitza|Slivnitza]] (19 November), which Alexander had little to do with, having arrived in Slivnitsa after the battle (incidentally initiated by a volunteer of the rank of private) was already over,<ref>
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