Diferenzas entre revisións de «Gray's Anatomy»

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{{Outroshomónimos|Grey's Anatomy|aGrey's Anatomy, serie de televisión, de título parecido}}
[[Ficheiro:Gray219.png|thumbnail|Unha ilustración da edición de 1918]]
'''''Henry Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body''''' (''Henry Gray: Anatomía do corpo humano''), popularmente coñecida por '''''Gray's Anatomy''''', é unha obra de anatomía xeralmente recoñecida como un clásico sobre [[anatomía humana]]. O libro foi primeiramente publicado co título '''''Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical''''', na [[Gran Bretaña]], no ano de [[1858]]. No ano seguinte foi publicado nos [[Estados Unidos de América]]. O autor do libro morreu tras a publicación da segunda edición do libro, en [[1860]], con 34 anos de idade. No entantoMentres, a súa obra foi continuada por outros e o [[24 de novembro]] de [[2004]] publicouse a 39ª edición.
 
== Orixes de "Gray's Anatomy" ==
[[Ficheiro:Henry Gray bw photo portrait.jpg|thumb|left|Henry Gray.]]
O anatomista inglés [[Henry Gray]] naceu en [[1825]] ou en [[1827]]. El estudouEstudou o desenvolvemento das glándulas endócrinas e da vexiga e en 1853 foi nomeado como profesor de anatomía no St. George's Hospital Medical School en [[Londres]]. En 1855 el coñeceu o seu colega Dr. [[Henry Vandyke Carter]] coa suasúa idea de producir un libro de anatomía para estudantes de medicina. Morreu moi novo, en [[1861]], soamente tres anos após a descrición da suasúa "Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical", oá calque xeracións de estudantes de medicina renomearon como simplemente "Gray's Anatomy".
 
== Edicións británicas e norteamericanas ==
Entre [[1860]] e [[1880]] sete edicións do libro foron publicadas na [[Gran Bretaña]], publicándose a novena edición en 1880. Nese período o desenvolvemento do texto consolídase coa primeira edición ''dedicada'' aos Estados Unidos, posibelmente en [[1878]] (a información deste feito é escasa). En canto o desenvolvemento da edición británica do texto continuou (e novas edicións británicas seguiron publicándose), tamén se publicaron diferentes edicións nos Estados Unidos.
 
A edición dos Estados Unidos de 1878 parece ter comezado unha numeración de edición do cero (a pesar da versión británica ter sido publicada primeiro). Esta "primeira" edición americana correspondía aproximadamente á oitava edición británica, con edicións posteriores con numeración consecutiva. Iso levou á existencia de, por moitos anos, de dúas edicións diferentes de Gray's Anatomy: a estadounidense e a británica. Este feito frecuentemente causa desentendementos e confusións, especialmente cando se fan citacións ou cando se tenta adquirir unha certa edición.
 
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== Most recent available editions ==
[[Ficheiro:Gray190.png|thumb|right|An illustration from the 1918 edition.]]
[[As of 2005|As of]] [[February 2005]], the latest edition of ''Gray's Anatomy'' is the 39th edition, published on [[November 25]], [[2004]] in the UK and [[November 24]], 2004 in the U.S., which is also available in [[CD-ROM]] format. The publisher is [[Churchill Livingstone]] in the UK while it is [[C.V. Mosby]] (Churchill Livingstone in the U.S.) in the U.S., which is published in New York City. The two books are almost identical, with minor changes made to take into account differences in British and American terminology (e.g. [[Adrenaline]] vs [[Epinephrine]]).
 
A version of ''Gray's Anatomy'' called ''Gray's Anatomy for Students'' has also been published. It was published on [[October 5]], 2004 in the [[United Kingdom]] and [[October 15]], 2004 in the United States, by [[Churchill Livingstone]]. However, it should be noted that this is an entirely new book, written from scratch, sharing only the name of the classic.
 
Older editions of the book continue to be reprinted and sold. On the [[World Wide Web]], there are many offers for what seem to be [[reprint]]s of the 1901 (probably U.S.) edition. They may serve artistic use because their companion illustrations and anatomical [[cross-section]]s are renowned for their rustic and often haunting presentation. Nevertheless, the usefulness of such reprints for acquiring up-to-date medical knowledge is severely limited.
 
[[Henry Gray]] wrote the original version of ''Gray's Anatomy'' with an audience of [[medical student]]s and [[physician]]s in mind, especially [[surgery|surgeon]]s. For many decades however, precisely because Gray's textbook became such a classic, successive editors made major efforts to preserve its position as possibly the most authoritative text on the subject in the [[English language]]. Toward this end, a long term strategy appears to have been to have the book contain a ''fully comprehensive'' account of the anatomical and medical knowledge available at the time of publication of each edition. The senior editor of the latest edition of Gray's Anatomy is Susan Standring, who is Head of the Department of Anatomy and Human Sciences at [[King's College London]].
 
Keeping in mind the explosion of medical knowledge in the [[20th century]], it is easily appreciated that this led to a vast expansion of the book, which acutely threatened to collapse under its own weight in a [[metaphor]]ical and physical sense. From the 35th edition onward, increased efforts have been made to reverse this trend and keep the book readable by students. Nevertheless, the 38th edition contained 2092 pages in large format. This edition still might best serve as an "ultimate reference" and has been described as the [[Bible]] of anatomy.
 
Newer editions of ''Gray's Anatomy'' (and even several older ones) are (still) considered to be about the most comprehensive and detailed books of such type on the subject.
 
== See also ==
* [[List of human anatomical features]]
* [[Wikipedia:Gray's Anatomy images with missing articles|List of Gray's Anatomy images on Wikipedia]]
* [[List of images and subjects in Gray's Anatomy]]
* [[List of subjects in Gray's Anatomy: Alphabetical]]
* [[List of subjects in Gray's Anatomy: XII. Surface anatomy and Surface Markings]]
 
== External links and references ==
{{commonscat|Gray's Anatomy plates}}
* Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Medicine and Surgery, 39th edition (2004), 1600 pages, Churchill-Livingstone, ISBN 0-443-07168-3 &mdash; the U.K version.
* Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th edition (2004), 1627 pages, C.V. Mosby, ISBN 0-443-07168-3 &mdash; the U.S. version.
* [http://www.intl.elsevierhealth.com/catalogue/title.cfm?ISBN=0443071683 Publisher's page for the U.K. 39th edition] (book, ISBN 0-443-07168-3)
* [http://www.us.elsevierhealth.com/product.jsp?isbn=0443071683 Publisher's page for the U.S. 39th version] (book, ISBN 0-443-07168-3)
* [http://www.elsevier-international.com/catalogue/title.cfm?ISBN=0443066752 Publisher's page for the 39th edition's CD-ROM format] (CD-ROM, ISBN 0-443-06675-2)
* http://www.bartleby.com/107/ &mdash; The complete 20th U.S. edition of Gray's ''Anatomy of the Human Body'', published in 1918, the content of which is in the public domain.
* http://www.graysanatomyonline.com/content/0443066760/suppfiles/HistoricalIntro.pdf &mdash; A comprehensive history of the British Edition of the book
* Online version of Gray's Anatomy from [http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/ Yahoo]
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==Véxase tamén==
===Ligazóns externas===
{{commonscat|Gray's Anatomy plates|Anatomía de Gray}}
 
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